ethylenediamine

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ethylenediamine

 [eth´ĭ-lēn-di″ah-mēn]
a clear liquid with an ammonia like odor and a strong alkaline reaction; complexed with theophylline, it forms aminophylline.

aminophylline (theophylline, ethylenediamine)

Amnivent (UK), Phyllocontin (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Xanthine

Therapeutic class: Bronchodilator

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Unclear. Thought to directly relax smooth muscle of bronchial airways and increase pulmonary blood flow by inhibiting phosphodiesterase.

Availability

Injection: 250 mg/10 ml

Oral liquid: 105 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 100 mg, 200 mg

Indications and dosages

Symptomatic relief of bronchospasm in patients with acute symptoms who require rapid theophyllinization

Adults (nonsmokers): 0.7 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 0.5 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Children ages 9 to 16: 1 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 0.8 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Children ages 6 months to 9 years: 1.2 mg/kg/hour I.V. for first 12 hours. Maintenance dosage is 1 mg/kg/hour I.V.

Chronic bronchial asthma

Adults and children: Dosage is highly individualized. Common initial dosage is 16 mg/kg/24 hours I.V. or 400 mg/24 hours I.V. in divided doses at 6- or 8hour intervals. If needed, dosage may be increased 25% at 3-day intervals.

Dosage adjustment

• Heart failure
• Hepatic disease
• Elderly patients
• Smokers

Off-label uses

• Dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to xanthine compounds or ethylenediamine
• Seizure disorders

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• COPD, diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, renal or hepatic disease, heart failure or other cardiac or circulatory impairment, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, peptic ulcer, severe hypoxemia
• active peptic ulcer disease
• elderly patients
• neonates, infants, and young children.

Administration

• For I.V. use, dilute according to label directions and infuse at a rate no faster than 25 mg/minute.
• Don't give in I.V. solutions containing invert sugar, fructose, or fat emulsions.
• Give oral form at meals with 8 oz of water.

Adverse reactions

CNS: irritability, dizziness, nervousness, restlessness, headache, insomnia, stammering speech, abnormal behavior, mutism, unresponsiveness alternating with hyperactivity, seizures

CV: palpitations, sinus tachycardia, extrasystoles, marked hypotension, arrhythmias, circulatory failure

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux, anorexia

GU: urine retention (in men with enlarged prostate), diuresis, increased excretion of renal tubular cells and red blood cells, proteinuria

Metabolic: hyperglycemia

Musculoskeletal: muscle twitching

Respiratory: tachypnea, respiratory arrest

Skin: flushing

Other: fever, hypersensitivity reactions (including exfoliative dermatitis and urticaria)

Interactions

Drug-drug.Adenosine: decreased antiarrhythmic effect of adenosine

Barbiturates, nicotine, phenytoin, rifampin: decreased aminophylline blood level

Beta-adrenergic blockers: antagonism of aminophylline effects

Calcium channel blockers, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, disulfiram, erythromycin, hormonal contraceptives, influenza vaccine, interferon, methotrexate: elevated aminophylline blood level

Carbamazepine, isoniazid, loop diuretics (such as furosemide): increased or decreased aminophylline blood level

Ephedrine, other sympathomimetics: toxicity, arrhythmias

Lithium: increased lithium excretion

Drug-diagnostic tests.Aspartate aminotransferase, glucose: increased levels

Drug-herbs.Cayenne: increased risk of aminophylline toxicity

Drug-behaviors.Smoking: increased aminophylline elimination

Patient monitoring

Monitor aminophylline blood level. Adjust dosage if patient has signs or symptoms of toxicity (tachycardia, headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness, and irritability).
• Assess for arrhythmias, especially after giving loading dose.
• Check vital signs and fluid intake and output.
• Monitor patient's response to drug, and assess pulmonary function test results.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take oral doses at meals with 8 oz of water.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.
• Tell patient to minimize GI upset by eating small, frequent servings of food and drinking plenty of fluids.
• Advise patient to establish effective bedtime routine to minimize insomnia.
• Caution patient not to change aminophylline brands.
• If patient smokes, tell him to notify prescriber if he stops smoking; dosage may need to be adjusted.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

eth·yl·ene·di·a·mine

(eth'il-ēn-dī'ă-mēn),
A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniacal odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier. Combined with theophylline to make aminophylline, a water-soluble salt suitable for intravenous or rectal administration.

ethylenediamine

/eth·y·lene·di·a·mine/ (eth″ĭ-lēn-di´ah-mēn) a clear liquid with an ammonialike odor and a strong alkaline reaction; complexed with theophylline it forms aminophylline.

ethylenediamine

[eth′əlēndi·am′ēn]
a clear thick liquid having the odor of ammonia. It is used as a solvent, an emulsifier, and a stabilizer with aminophylline injections.

eth·yl·ene·di·a·mine

(eth'il-ēn-dī'ă-mēn)
A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniac odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier. Combined with theophylline to make aminophylline, a water-soluble salt suitable for intravenous or rectal administration.

eth·yl·ene·di·a·mine

(eth'il-ēn-dī'ă-mēn)
A volatile colorless liquid of ammoniac odor and caustic taste; the dihydrochloride is used as a urinary acidifier.

ethylenediamine

in complex with theophylline, it forms aminophylline.

ethylenediamine dihydrochloride
a urinary acidifier.
ethylenediamine dihydroiodide
used in livestock as an expectorant, anti-inflammatory agent and iodine supplement. Can cause poisoning if taken in excess. Signs include nasal and ocular discharge, dyspnea and cough.
ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid
see edetate.
References in periodicals archive ?
II-2-1-3 Import and export of ethylenediamines in 2009
II-2-1-5 Downstream consumption of ethylenediamines
1 Active ethylenediamines producers in China, as of Oct.
1 Planned ethylenediamines capacity of major enterprises in China
com/research/42377e/import_analysis_of) has announced the addition of CCM International Limited's "Import Analysis of Ethylenediamines in China" report to their extensive offering of chemical industry research publications.
In China, ethylenediamines are widely used in the production of resin, pesticide, pharmaceuticals, etc.
Even though it started production at the end of 1980s, Chinese industrialized production of ethylenediamines was still small in scale (capacity>=10,000t/a) before 2010.
The import volume of ethylenediamines has been increasing with a growth rate of 13% over the past 10 years.
com/research/0e171b/survey_of_ethylene) has announced the addition of the "Survey of Ethylenediamines in China" report to their offering.
In China, ethylenediamines has been widely used in the production of resin, pesticide, pharmaceuticals, etc.
Even if it has started production at the end of 1980s, China's ethylenediamines are still in small-scale industrialized production before 2010.
China's ethylenediamines supply mainly relies on import, and the import volume has been increasing with the growth rate of 13% in recent 10 years.

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