erythromycin

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erythromycin

 [ĕ-rith″ro-mi´sin]
a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by a strain of Streptomyces erythreus, administered orally, parenterally, and topically to the skin or to the eye, and effective against a wide variety of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Available forms include the estrolate ester and the ethylsuccinate, gluceptate, lactobionate, and stearate salts.

erythromycin (topical)

Akne-Mycin, A/T/S, E-Glades, E-Solve 2, Erycette, Eryderm, Erygel, Sans-Acne (CA), Stiemycin (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Macrolide

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Binds with 50S subunit of susceptible bacterial ribosomes, suppressing protein synthesis in bacterial cells and causing cell death

Availability

erythromycin base

Capsules (delayed-release): 250 mg

Ointment (ophthalmic): 0.5%

Tablets: 250 mg, 500 mg

Tablets (delayed-release, enteric-coated): 250 mg, 333 mg, 500 mg

Tablets (particles in tablets): 333 mg, 500 mg

erythromycin ethylsuccinate

Oral suspension: 200 mg/5 ml, 400 mg/5 ml

Powder for suspension: 100 mg/2.5 ml, 200 mg/5 ml, 400 mg/5 ml Tablets: 400 mg

erythromycin lactobionate

Powder for injection: 500 mg, 1 g

erythromycin stearate

Tablets (film-coated): 250 mg, 500 mg

erythromycin (topical)

Gel: 2%

Ointment: 2%

Solution: 2%

Swabs: 2%

Indications and dosages

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Adults: 500 mg (base) I.V. q 6 hours for 3 days, then 250 mg (base, estolate, or stearate) or 400 mg (ethylsuccinate) q 6 hours for 7 days

Syphilis

Adults: 500 mg (base, estolate, or stearate) P.O. q.i.d. for 14 days

Most upper and lower respiratory tract infections; otitis media; skin infections; Legionnaires' disease

Adults: 250 mg P.O. q 6 hours, or 333 mg P.O. q 8 hours, or 500 mg P.O. q 12 hours (base, estolate, or stearate); or 400 mg P.O. q 6 hours or 800 mg P.O. q 12 hours (ethylsuccinate); or 250 to 500 mg I.V. (up to 1 g) q 6 hours (gluceptate or lactobionate)

Children: 30 to 50 mg/kg/day (base, estolate, ethylsuccinate, or lactobionate) I.V. or P.O., in divided doses q 6 hours when giving I.V. and q 6 to 8 hours when giving P.O. Maximum dosage is 2 g/day for base or estolate, 3.2 g/day for ethylsuccinate, and 4 g/day for lactobionate.

Intestinal amebiasis

Adults: 250 mg (base, estolate, or stearate) or 400 mg (ethylsuccinate) P.O. q 6 hours for 10 to 14 days

Children: 30 to 50 mg/kg/day (base, estolate, ethylsuccinate, or stearate) P.O. in divided doses over 10 to 14 days

Prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis

Neonates: 0.5- to 1-cm ribbon of ointment into each lower conjunctival sac once

Treatment of conjunctivitis of the newborn caused by susceptible organisms

Neonates: 50 mg/kg/day (ethylsuccinate) P.O. in four divided doses for at least 14 days

Pertussis

Children: 40 to 50 mg/kg/day (estolate preferred) P.O. in four divided doses for 14 days

Pneumonia of infancy

Infants: 50 mg/kg/day (estolate or ethylsuccinate) P.O. in four divided doses for at least 3 weeks

Acne

Adults and children older than age 12: 2% ointment, gel, or solution applied topically b.i.d.

e·ryth·ro·my·cin

(ĕ-rith'rō-mī'sin), Avoid the mispronunciation ĕ-rith-rō-mī'ă-sin.
A macrolide antibiotic agent obtained from cultures of a strain of Streptomyces erythraeus found in soil; it is active against Corynebacterium diphtheriae and several other species of Corynebacterium, Group A hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis; gram-positive bacteria are in general more susceptible to its action than gram-negative bacteria are. Available as the estolate, ethylcarbonate, ethylsuccinate, gluceptate, lactobionate, stearate, and salts; active against Legionella and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Often used as a substitute antibiotic in penicillin-allergic patients.

erythromycin

/eryth·ro·my·cin/ (-mi´sin) a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces erythreus; used against gram-positive bacteria and certain gram-negative bacteria, spirochetes, some rickettsiae, Entamoeba, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae; used in the form of the gluceptate, lactobionate, stearate, and other salts.

erythromycin

(ĭ-rĭth′rə-mī′sĭn)
n.
An antibiotic, C37H67NO13, obtained from a strain of the actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea and used chiefly to treat infections caused by gram-positive bacteria.

erythromycin

[erith′rōmī′sin]
an antibiotic (of the macrolide type).
indications It is prescribed in the treatment of many bacterial and mycoplasmic infections, particularly those that cannot be treated by penicillin.
contraindications Liver disease or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects The more serious adverse effects result from its effects on the metabolism of other drugs, which have led to fatalities (e.g., with Seldane [terfenadine]). Cholestatic hepatitis, hypersensitivity reactions, and GI discomfort are other adverse effects associated with its use.

e·ryth·ro·my·cin

(ĕ-rith'rō-mī'sin) Avoid the mispronunciation ĕ-rith-rō-m'ă-sin.
A macrolide antibiotic agent obtained from cultures of a strain of Streptomyces erythraeus found in soil; active against Corynebacterium diphtheriae and several other species of Corynebacterium, Group A hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis; gram-positive bacteria are in general more susceptible to its action than gram-negative bacteria are. Available as the estolate, ethylcarbonate, ethylsuccinate, gluceptate, lactobionate, stearate, and salts; active against Legionella and M. pneumoniae; used as a substitute antibiotic in penicillin-allergic patients.

erythromycin

An antibiotic of the macrolide class with an action similar to that of the tetracyclines. It binds to the RIBOSOMES in bacterial cells and interferes with the synthesis of protein. Oral erythromycin extends cardiac repolarization. It is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 3A isoenzymes and drugs such as nitroimidazole antifungals, verapamil, diltiazen and troleandomycin that inhibit CTP3A can increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Erythromycin is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Arpimicin, Erymax, Erymin, Erythrocin, Erythroped, Tiloryth, and, formulated with other drugs for external use only, Benzamycin, Isotrexin and Zineryl.

erythromycin

an antibiotic produced by a strain of STREPTOMYCES that inhibits protein synthesis, particularly in organisms which are Gram-positive (see GRAM'S STAIN).

erythromycin

macrolide; antimicrobial agent with similar spectrum of action to penicillin; effective against Gram-positive bacteria, including some penicillin-resistant staphylococci; indicated for treatment of cellulitis, impetigo and erysipelas in penicillin-sensitive individuals; dose = 250-500 mg orally every 6 hours

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.

e·ryth·ro·my·cin

(ĕ-rith'rō-mī'sin) Avoid the mispronunciation ĕ-rith-rō-mī'ă-sin.
Macrolide antibiotic agent obtained from cultures of a strain of Streptomyces erythraeus found in soil; active against Corynebacterium diphtheriae and several other species of Corynebacterium, Group A hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis.

erythromycin

(ərith´rōmī´sin),
n an antibiotic produced by a strain of
S. erythroeus, only slightly effective against β-hemolytic streptococci (viridans group), and upper and lower respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissue infections of mild to moderate severity. It is no longer recommended by the American Heart Association and the American Dental Association for treatment of bacterial endocarditis in patients hypersensitive to penicillin.
erythromycin base (et al.),
n brand names: E-mycin, Ery-Tab (et al.);
drug class: macrolide antibiotic;
action: binds to 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria and suppresses protein synthesis;
uses: infections caused by
N. gonorrhoeae; mild to moderate respiratory tract, skin, soft tissue infections caused by
S. pneumoniae, C. diphtheriae, B. pertussis; syphilis; Legionnaire's disease; H. influenzae.

erythromycin

a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by a strain of Streptomyces erythreus. It is effective against a wide variety of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The stearate can be given orally; the lactobionate is a soluble salt which can be administered intravenously.