It will specifically suppress IL-17A, a cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and inflammation of the entheses
in psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondilytis.
Because the CDAI doesn't measure across the spectrum of PsA disease, some of the patients may have had active disease in entheses
or skin or relapsed in those domains but not the joints, noted Philip Helliwell, MD, senior lecturer in rheumatology at the University of Leeds (England) and honorary consultant rheumatologist for the Bradford (England) Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, who was not involved in the study.
21) It is suggested by the authour that the use of Cox FDD to the knee may cause conformational changes to the synovial capsule and fluid, meniscus, articular cartilage, tendons and entheses
, due to the decreased pressure induced by treatment similar to that which occurs in the intervertebral discs.
(points of muscle/ligament attachment) are the products of physical motion; as a muscle is used repeatedly, strenuously, and for extended periods of time, the muscle increases in size and therefore needs a larger point of skeletal attachment (Hawkey and Merbs 1995).
Enthesopathy is pathological change at entheses
(osteotendinous or osteoligamentous junctions) secondary to repetitive stress application and consequently, these sites are commonly involved in overuse injuries or enthesopathies8.
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), family of Spondyloarthritides (SpAs), is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the axial skeleton, the entheses
and occasionally the peripheral joints.
Gives good anatomical detail; can also reliably show joint effusions, synovial hypertrophy, inflammation and inflamed tendon sheaths and entheses
Typically, it is a chronic disease which affects the spinal column and sacroiliac joints, entheses
, and less commonly, the peripheral joints.
The skeletal attachment of tendons-tendon entheses
There have been various methods used over the years, although the standard that is currently considered the most specific is the CIASsification of Psoriatic ARthritis (CASPAR) criteria, which require the presence of inflammation in a joint, the spine, or entheses
plus at least 3 points from the following factors: presence of current psoriasis (2 points) or a personal or family history of psoriasis (1 point), dactylitis (1 point), pitting or ridging of the nails (1 point), a negative rheumatoid factor (1 point), and radiographic evidence of new bone formation (1 point).
Fib-rocartilage at the entheses
of the suprascapular (supe-rior transverse scapular) ligament of man"a ligament spanning two regions of a single bone.
in medical literature and physical anthropology: a brief review (online).