Perhaps more accurately, Stan Krippner (2006) terms them "potential entheogens," for they do not automatically induce mystical or spiritual experiences, but may do so for some people when both the "set" and the "setting" are conducive to it, that is, when the person is in the right frame of mind and the right environment, as in the recent experiments with psilocybin and mystical experience at Johns Hopkins University (Griffiths, Richards, McCann, & Jesse, 2006).
Although some researchers urged adopting the name entheogens to gain respectability, the vanguard of advocates continued to use the term psychedelic, even though for decades it had been loaded with negative baggage.
Rather, it is the quintessential entheogen
, a plant said to provide access to the God within.
We'll explore hallucinogens, or entheogens
, further in upcoming issues.
Discussing the neurophenomenology of entheogens
(often referred to as "plants of the gods" by indigenous peoples), he argues that these apparently exogenous producers of spiritual perceptions operate through direct action on the serotonergic neurotransmittor system and mesolimbic temporal lobe structures, and therefore their psychointegrative effects can be viewed as endogenous.
and how they have impacted human cultures and institutions
Thus it is not surprising that substances of this type have also been used in both traditional and contemporary religious or spiritual practices as sacraments (Baker 2005; Roberts 2001), and referred to by the term entheogens
(literally: "becoming divine within") (Ruck et al.
This virtual haven has many names, one of which is the entheosphere: a mind-space concerned with entheogens
, psychedelic drugs that are ingested with a view to consciousness expansion and spiritual enlightenment (Ott 1995: 88).
Researchers have speculated on the use of entheogens
of a variety of species in the Bible (Shanon 2008; Merkur 2000; Allegro 1970) as well as linking a shared entheogenic heritage with Persia in such crucial texts as the Book of Ezra, which sheds much light on foreign influences on Jewish cultic practices (Dobroruka 2006).
Known as entheogens
, a term etymologically rooted in Latin meaning "generating the divine within," such compounds are commonly referred to as psychedelics or hallucinogens.
This fact is surprising as his work on alchemy combines arguments of early transmissions of religious practices that included sexual yoga, entheogens
, and "macrobiotics" as core doctrines that spread from the dawn of civilization across the ancient world.
The hoasca case indicates that cases involving entheogens
are likely to increase.