Q fever is often directly transmitted; however, as can be seen in the phylogenetic tree (Fig 4), the most closely related organisms are endosymbionts
of ticks that have been documented as having essential and mutualistic relationships.
Host differentially expressed genes during association with its defensive endosymbiont
Whiteflies, aphids or mealybugs (phloem sucking insects) have primary and facultative relationship with endosymbionts
of bacterial origin (Moran, 2001) like Portiera which is a primary endosymbiont
According to Baumann and Baumann (2005), P- endosymbionts
have evolved with insects individual for long time and have a close relationship with individual hosts.
During daylight, corals receive a substantial portion of the photosynthate produced by the endosymbionts
living in their gastrodermis (32%-45% in Pocillopora damicornis) (Muscatine and Cernichiari, 1969), which can make up a significant portion of the coral's energy budget--in Porites compressa and Montipora capitata 65%-79% of daily metabolic energy is autotrophically derived (Grottoli et al.
It has been the premise that Wolbachia endosymbionts
have a role in the host speciation through reproductive isolation which they cause in the infected hosts.
play a vital role in the physiology of their host, revealing the types of bacteria associated with mealy bug will give basic information, which may throw light on the management of this pest.
The various components of the total genome such as viruses, transposable elements, non-coding RNAs, and cells (with their constituent endosymbionts
and epigenetically guided differentiation) as well as symbionts (with their epigenetic sculpting and pruning along and across their genealogy) are interactively charged with responding in an organized, reciprocating manner to environmental changes including behavioral adjustments.
The complexity of virus systems: The case of endosymbionts
Phylogenetic characterization of two transovarially transmitted endosymbionts
of the bedbug Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).
The use of stable isotopes to study ant trophic position and the impact of gut microsymbionts or specific intracellular endosymbionts
on ant nutritional balance are some of the new and exciting avenues of research in ant ecology discussed by the authors.
Another potential approach to bed bug control is targeting the Wolbachia endosymbionts