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endoscopic ultrasonographyEndoscopy A technique in which an echoendoscope is used to identify masses below the resolution of conventional imaging modalities. See Ultrasonography.
endoscopic ultrasonographyA refined form of ultrasound imaging in which the transducer is inserted into the body by way of an endoscopic port so that it may be brought closer to the point of interest. The method has been found especially useful in dealing with stones in the bile ducts or in other situations in which direct endoscopic vision is difficult.
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)
Diagnostic imaging technique in which an ultrasound probe is inserted down a patient's throat to determine if a tumor is present.
an imaging technique in which deep structures of the body are visualized by recording the reflections (echoes) of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues.
Frequencies in the range of 1 million to 10 million hertz are used in diagnostic ultrasonography. The lower frequencies provide a greater depth of penetration and are used to examine abdominal organs; those in the upper range provide less penetration and are used predominantly to examine more superficial structures such as the eye.
The basic principle of ultrasonography is the same as that of depth-sounding in oceanographic studies of the ocean floor. The ultrasonic waves are confined to a narrow beam that may be transmitted through, refracted, absorbed, or reflected by the medium toward which they are directed, depending on the nature of the surface they strike.
In diagnostic ultrasonography the ultrasonic waves are produced by electrically stimulating a piezoelectric crystal called a transducer. As the beam strikes an interface or boundary between tissues of varying acoustic impedance (e.g. muscle and blood) some of the sound waves are reflected back to the transducer as echoes. The echoes are then converted into electrical impulses that are displayed on an oscilloscope, presenting a 'picture' of the tissues under examination.
Ultrasonography can be utilized in examination of the heart (echocardiography) and in identifying size and structural changes in organs in the abdominopelvic cavity. It is, therefore, of value in identifying and distinguishing cancers and benign cysts. The technique also may be used to evaluate tumors and foreign bodies of the eye, and to demonstrate retinal detachment. Ultrasonography is not, however, of much value in examination of the lungs because ultrasound waves do not pass through structures that contain air.
A particularly important use of ultrasonography is in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. It is a fast, relatively safe, and reliable technique for diagnosing pregnancy, and for detecting some typical fetal anomalies.
(amplitude modulation) that in which on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) display one axis represents the time required for the return of the echo and the other corresponds to the strength of the echo, as in echoencephalography.
(brightness modulation) that in which the position of a spot on the CRT display corresponds to the time elapsed (and thus to the position of the echogenic surface) and the brightness of the spot to the strength of the echo; movement of the transducer produces a sweep of the ultrasound beam and a tomographic scan of a cross-section of the body.
see doppler ultrasound.
a high resolution ultrasound transducer, mounted on a flexible endoscope, can be used to gain images from within a hollow organ, such as the gastrointestinal tract. This overcomes some of the problems ingesta and fecal material cause in other methods of ultrasound examination.
B-mode ultrasonography in which the strength of echoes is indicated by a proportional brightness of the displayed dots.
(motion mode) a type of B-mode ultrasonography in which spots on the CRT display produce a tracing of the motion of echogenic objects. Used in echocardiography.
B-mode ultrasonography using an array of detectors so that scans can be made electronically at a rate of 30 frames a second, thus giving a true display of motion, such as that of the heart.