pulmonary emphysema

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em·phy·se·ma

(em'fi-sē'mă), Specify pulmonary, mediastinal, and subcutaneous emphysema, and similar usage unless the exact sense is evident from the context.
1. Presence of air in the interstices of the connective tissue of a part.
2. A condition of the lung characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole (those parts containing alveoli), with destructive changes in their walls and reduction in their number. Clinical manifestation is breathlessness on exertion, due to the combined effect (in varying degrees) of reduction of alveolar surface for gas exchange and collapse of smaller airways with trapping of alveolar gas in expiration; this causes the chest to be held in the position of inspiration ("barrel chest"), with prolonged expiration and increased residual volume. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis often, but not necessarily, coexist. Two structural varieties are panlobular (panacinar) emphysema and centrilobular (centriacinar) emphysema; paracicatricial, paraseptal, and bullous emphysema are also common. Synonym(s): pulmonary emphysema
[G. inflation of stomach, etc. fr. en, in, + physēma, a blowing, fr. physa, bellows]

pulmonary emphysema

a chronic obstructive disease of the lungs, marked by an overdistension of the alveoli and destruction of the supporting alveolar structure. See also emphysema.

em·phy·se·ma

(em'fi-sē'mă)
1. Presence of air in the interstices of the connective tissue of a part.
2. A condition of the lung characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole (those parts containing alveoli), with destructive changes in their walls and reduction in their number. Clinical manifestation is breathlessness on exertion, due to the combined effect (in varying degrees) of reduction of alveolar surface for gas exchange and collapse of smaller airways with trapping of alveolar gas in expiration; this causes the chest to be held in the position of inspiration ("barrel chest"), with prolonged expiration and increased residual volume. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis often, but not necessarily, coexist. Two structural varieties are panlobular (panacinar) emphysema and centrilobular (centriacinar) emphysema; paracicatricial, paraseptal, and bullous emphysema are also common.
Synonym(s): pulmonary emphysema.
[G. inflation of stomach. fr. en, in, + physēma, a blowing, fr. physa, bellows]

emphysema

a pathological accumulation of air in tissues. The air may derive from a skin laceration and be drawn in by the movements of muscles. A discontinuity of the tracheal mucosa is a common cause, either by way of laceration or ulceration. Extension from a pulmonary lesion is also common. The syndrome resulting depends on the location of the air. See also pulmonary emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (below).

acute bovine pulmonary emphysema
alveolar emphysema
see pulmonary emphysema (below).
bullous emphysema
emphysema in which bullae form in areas of lung tissue so that these areas do not contribute to respiration.
conjunctival emphysema
may occur after head trauma which permits escape of air from the paranasal sinuses.
fetal emphysema
see emphysematous/putrescent fetus.
generalized emphysema
widespread distribution of air, including subcutaneous tissues, seen with pneumomediastinum.
hypoplastic emphysema
pulmonary emphysema due to a developmental abnormality, resulting in a reduced number of alveoli, which are abnormally large.
interlobular emphysema
accumulation of air in the septa between lobules of the lungs.
interstitial emphysema
presence of air in the peribronchial and interstitial tissues of the lungs.
intestinal emphysema
a condition marked by accumulation of gas under the tunica serosa of the intestine.
lobar emphysema
emphysema involving less than all the lobes of the affected lung.
mediastinal emphysema
orbital emphysema
may occur after trauma to the head which permits escape of air from the paranasal sinuses; appears as swelling with crepitus under the conjunctiva or periocular skin.
panacinar emphysema, panlobular emphysema
generalized obstructive emphysema affecting all lung segments, with atrophy and dilatation of the alveoli and destruction of the vascular bed.
pulmonary emphysema
distention of the lung caused by overdistention of alveoli and rupture of alveolar walls (alveolar emphysema) and in some cases escape of air into the interstitial spaces (interstitial emphysema). It is a common pathological finding in many diseases of the lung in all species, but also occurs independently, especially in horses, as a principal lesion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a prominent lesion in bovine atypical interstitial pneumonia. It is always secondary to a primary lesion which effectively traps an excessive amount of air in the alveoli. It is characterized clinically by cough, dyspnea, forced expiratory effort and poor work tolerance. A double expiratory effort is a characteristic sign—hence broken wind.
subconjunctival emphysema
occurs with fractures involving the paranasal sinuses.
subcutaneous emphysema
air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues. The characteristic lesion is a soft, mobile swelling which crackles like stiff paper when palpated. There is no pain, nor heat and no ill effects unless the pharyngeal area is sufficiently involved to cause asphyxia.
surgical emphysema
subcutaneous emphysema following operation.
unilateral emphysema
emphysema affecting only one lung, frequently due to congenital defects in circulation.
vesicular emphysema
see panacinar emphysema (above).

Patient discussion about pulmonary emphysema

Q. EMPHYSEMA what type of disease is it?

A. It's a chronic lung disease, characterized by destruction of the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) where the blood exchange oxygen and CO2 with the air. The disease leads to obstruction of the airflow, air trapping inside the lungs, and to many long term complications, and eventually to death. It's caused mainly by smoking.

You may read more here:
www.mayoclinic.com/health/emphysema/DS00296

Q. can you ever get better from emphysema?

A. Emphysema is a chronic state where the lungs pathologically expand and cause them to lose their compliance during breathing. This is not a reversible state, and usually the lung pathological changes will continue to deteriorate if the lungs are exposed to the same pathogens that caused the initial damage (for example- smoking). However, smoking cessation is known to have benefitial results in slowing down the progress of lung disability and somewhat reversing part of the damage by regression of the inflammatory processes that are related to the emphysema.

Q. Does smoking cause emphysema? I know it sounds like a silly question, as you can read everywhere that smoking damages your lung and cause emphysema and lung cancer, but I know a family with 4 brothers,2 of them not smoking and by the age of 50 both of them had emphysema, and another brothers that doesn't stop smoking but is completely healthy. How can than happen?

A. Most of the emphysema patients are smokers, but only a minority of the smokers eventually develop emphysema.

More discussions about pulmonary emphysema
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