hemorrhoid

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hemorrhoid

 [hem´ŏ-roid]
an enlarged (varicose) vein in the mucous membrane inside or just outside the rectum; called also pile.

Internal hemorrhoids usually are first noticed when minor bleeding occurs with defecation. Pain occurs rarely, unless there is an associated disorder such as an anal fissure, thrombosis, or strangulation of the affected vein. External hemorrhoids produce varying degrees of pain, feelings of pressure, itching, irritation, and a palpable mass. Bleeding occurs only if the external hemorrhoid is injured or ulcerated and begins to break down.

Hemorrhoids are caused by increased pressure on the veins of the anus. Prolonged sitting, constipation, and hard, dry stools that are difficult to pass can lead to straining and sitting at stool for long periods of time, all of which add pressure on the anal veins. Failure to follow through on the urge to defecate can also lead to hemorrhoids. In women, probably the single most common cause is pregnancy.

External hemorrhoids can be treated by local applications of cold and an astringent cream, by sitz baths, and by avoidance of constipation. Internal hemorrhoids may require sclerosing or cryosurgery to obliterate the affected tissue. More advanced, chronic hemorrhoids usually must be removed surgically by ligation and excision (hemorrhoidectomy) or by barron ligation.
Types of hemorrhoids.
external hemorrhoid one distal to the pectinate line.
internal hemorrhoid one originating above the pectinate line and covered by mucous membrane.
prolapsed hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has descended below the pectinate line and protruded outside the anal sphincter.
strangulated hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has prolapsed sufficiently and for a long enough time for its blood supply to become occluded by the constricting action of the anal sphincter.

hem·or·rhoid

(hem'ŏ-royd), Avoid the misspelling hemroid and its many variants.
Denoting one of the tumors or varices constituting hemorrhoids.

hemorrhoid

/hem·or·rhoid/ (hem´ah-roid) prolapse of an anal cushion, resulting in bleeding and painful swelling in the anal canal.
Hemorrhoids: (A), internal; (B), external; (C), mixed; (D), thrombosed.

external hemorrhoid  one in a vein of the inferior rectal plexus, below the pectinate line and covered with modified anal skin.
internal hemorrhoid  one in a vein of the superior rectal plexus, originating above the pectinate line and covered by mucous membrane.
prolapsed hemorrhoid  an internal hemorrhoid that has descended below the pectinate line and protruded outside the anal sphincter.
strangulated hemorrhoid  a prolapsed hemorrhoid whose blood supply has become occluded by constriction of the anal sphincter.
thrombosed hemorrhoid  one containing clotted blood.

hemorrhoid

(hĕm′ə-roid′)
n.
1. An itching or painful mass of dilated veins in swollen anal tissue.
2. hemorrhoids The pathological condition in which such painful masses occur. Also called piles.

hemorrhoid

[hem′əroid]
Etymology: Gk, haima + rhoia, flow
a varicosity in the lower rectum or anus caused by congestion in the veins of the hemorrhoidal plexus. Also spelled haemorrhoid. -hemorrhoidal, adj.
observations Internal hemorrhoids originate above the internal sphincter of the anus. If they become large enough to protrude from the anus, they become constricted and painful. Small internal hemorrhoids may bleed with defecation. External hemorrhoids appear outside the anal sphincter. They are usually not painful, and bleeding does not occur unless a hemorrhoidal vein ruptures or thromboses.
interventions Treatment includes local application of a topical medication to lubricate, anesthetize, and shrink the hemorrhoid. Sitz baths and cold or hot compresses are also soothing. The hemorrhoids may require sclerosing by injection, ligation, or surgical excision. Ligation is increasingly the preferred treatment because it is simple and effective and does not require anesthesia. The hemorrhoid is grasped with a forceps, and a rubber band is slipped over the varicosity, causing tissue necrosis and sloughing of the hemorrhoid, usually within 1 week.
nursing considerations Straining to defecate, constipation, and prolonged sitting contribute to the development of hemorrhoids. The client is counseled about ways to prevent these predisposing factors. Because pregnancy is associated with an increased incidence of hemorrhoids, pregnant women, as well as individuals who have cirrhosis of the liver, are advised to avoid constipation.
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Hemorrhoids

hemorrhoid

(hem'o-royd) [Gr. haimorrhois]
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HEMORRHOID
Veins of the internal or external hemorrhoidal plexuses and the immediately surrounding tissues. Hemorrhoids are most often referred to only when diseased (i.e., enlarged, painful, bleeding). Other anorectal conditions (e.g., anal fissure, condylomata, anal cancers) may produce similar symptoms and must be distinguished from hemorrhoids by appropriate examination. Synonym: pilesillustration;

Treatment

Therapy depends on the severity of the symptoms, not the extent of the hemorrhoids. In many instances, the only therapy required is improvement in anal care, adherence to appropriate fluid intake and diet if necessary, and administration of stool softeners to prevent straining to have a bowel movement. Measures to reduce local pain and congestion include the temporary use of local anesthetic agents, lubrication, cold compresses, warm sitz baths, and thermal packs. The necessity of surgery or other modalities of direct intervention (e.g., latex band ligation, sclerotherapy, cryosurgery, infrared photocoagulation, laser surgery) need not be applied until the acute process resolves except in cases of significant bleeding, intractable pain, recurrent episodes, and various individualized considerations. See: hemorrhoidectomy

external hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid located at or distal to the pectinate line (dentate margin), covered by anodermal epithelium or skin and extremely sensitive to most stimuli.
See: hemorrhoid for illus.

internal hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid located proximal to the pectinate line, covered by mucous membrane and relatively insensitive to direct noxious stimuli.
See: hemorrhoid for illus.

mixed (or combined) hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid that incorporates both internal and external components.
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PROLAPSED HEMORRHOIDS

prolapsed hemorrhoid

The protrusion of an internal hemorrhoid through the anus.
illustration

strangulated hemorrhoid

A prolapsed hemorrhoid that is trapped by the anal sphincter, thus compromising blood flow to the vein in the hemorrhoid.

Hemorrhoid

An area around the anus where veins become dilated and the tissue swells, causing itching and pain.
Mentioned in: Enterobiasis

Patient discussion about hemorrhoid

Q. What are hemorrhoids?

A. Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anal canal. This common problem can be painful, but it’s usually not serious.

Veins can swell inside the anal canal to form internal hemorrhoids. Or they can swell near the opening of the anus to form external hemorrhoids. You can have both types at the same time. The symptoms and treatment depend on which type you have.

Source: WebMD

Q. What are the symptoms of hemorrhoids? My husband complains that when he goes to the bathroom he bleeds. Does this mean he has hemorrhoids?

A. The commonest symptom of internal hemorrhoids is bright red blood in the toilet bowl or on one's feces or toilet paper. However, Many anorectal problems, including fissures, fistulae, abscesses, or irritation and itching (pruritus ani), have similar symptoms and are incorrectly referred to as hemorrhoids. If he is also in pain, then go see a Doctor.

Q. How to prevent Hemorrhoids? My brother is suffering from Hemorrhoids. I am very worried about getting them to and want to know how can I prevent them?

A. it's time to change to a healthier diet..one with fibers and vegetables.avoid causes like: Increased straining during bowel movements,portal hypertension, Obesity and Excessive consumption of alcohol or caffeine.

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