zinc

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zinc

 [zingk]
a chemical element, atomic number 30, atomic weight 65.37, symbol Zn. (See Appendix 6.) It is a trace element in the diet, a component of several enzymes, including DNA and RNA polymerases and carbonic anhydrase. It is abundant in red meat, shellfish, liver, peas, lentils, beans, and rice. A well-balanced diet assures adequate intake of zinc. Those who may suffer from zinc deficiency include persons on a strictly vegetarian diet and those who are on a high-fiber diet. In the latter case, the zinc is bound to the fiber and is eliminated in the feces without having been absorbed through the intestinal wall. Poor absorption of zinc also can occur in persons with chronic and severe bowel disease. The recommended daily intake is 12–15 mg for an adult. A severe deficiency of zinc can retard growth in children, cause a low sperm count in adult males, and retard wound healing. Signs of a deficiency include anorexia and a diminished sense of taste. An excessive intake of zinc (usually in those who work with the metal or breathe its fumes) can either cause pneumoconiosis or interfere with the body's use of copper and other trace elements, producing diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and other signs of intestinal irritation.
zinc acetate a salt used as an astringent and styptic.
zinc chloride a salt used as a nutritional supplement in total parenteral nutrition and applied topically as an astringent and a desensitizer for dentin.
zinc oxide a topical astringent and skin protectant; also a sunscreen.
zinc stearate a powder of zinc in a compound with stearic and palmitic acids; used as a water-repellent skin protectant in dermatoses.
zinc sulfate a topical astringent for mucous membranes, especially those of the eye.
zinc undecylenate the zinc salt of undecylenic acid; it is a topical antifungal.

zinc (Zn),

(zingk),
A metallic element, atomic no. 30, atomic wt. 65.39; an essential bioelement; a number of salts of zinc are used in medicine; a cofactor in many proteins.
[Ger. Zink]

zinc

(zingk) a chemical element, at. no. 30, symbol Zn; it is an essential micronutrient present in many enzymes, but is toxic on excessive exposure, as by ingestion or inhalation (e.g., metal fume fever ).
zinc acetate  an astringent and styptic.
zinc chloride  a salt used as a nutritional supplement in total parenteral nutrition and applied topically as an astringent and a desensitizer for dentin.
zinc oxide  a topical astringent and protectant; also a sunscreen.
zinc sulfate  a topical astringent for mucous membranes, especially those of the eye.
zinc undecylenate  the zinc salt of undecylenic acid; it is a topical antifungal.

zinc (Zn)

[zingk]
Etymology: Ger, Zink
a bluish-white crystalline metal commonly associated with lead ores. Its atomic number is 30; its atomic mass is 65.38. It is ductile in its pure form and occurs abundantly in minerals such as sphalerite, zincite, and franklinite. It has many commercial uses, such as a protective coating for steel and in printing plates. It is an essential nutrient in the body and is used in numerous pharmaceutics, such as zinc acetate, zinc oxide, zinc permanganate, and zinc stearate. Zinc acetate is used as an emetic, a styptic, and an astringent. Zinc oxide is used internally as an antispasmodic and as a protective agent in ointments. Zinc permanganate is used as an astringent and in the treatment of urethritis by injection or douche in a 1:4000 solution. Zinc stearate is used as a water-repellent protective agent in the treatment of acne, eczema, and other skin diseases.

zinc

A metallic element (atomic number 30; atomic weight 65.39) which is an essential daily requirement. Zinc plays a key role in growth and development, and is required by more than 200 metalloenzymes, including DNA- and RNA-polymerases, carbonic anhydrase, carboxypeptidase, reverse transcriptase, as well as by zinc-finger proteins involved in gene expression. Zinc is stored in synaptic vesicles and is a synaptic neuromodulator, acting in the hippocampus to induce depolarising synaptic potentials. The recomended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc is 5–15 mg/day (normal range 70–120 µg/dL). 

Dietary source
Seafood, red meat  wheat germ, veal sesame seeds, pumpkin and squash seeds, chocolate and peanuts. ± 20% of dietary zinc is absorbed, the process of which is enhanced by protein-rich foods (animal proteins, brewer’s yeast, legumes, nuts, pumpkin seeds, seafood, whole grains); ±90% is excreted in faeces.
 
Toxicology
Zinc-laden fumes and dusts are generated in the manufacture of alloys, paints, synthetic rubbers and roofing materials.

zinc

(zingk)
A metallic element, atomic no. 30, atomic wt. 65.39; an essential bioelement; a number of salts of zinc are used in medicine; a cofactor in many proteins.
[Ger. Zink]

zinc

A metallic element required in small quantities for health. Deficiency is rare but may occur in people with certain MALABSORPTION conditions, with ANOREXIA NERVOSA, DIABETES, severe burns, prolonged feverish illness, severe malnutrition in childhood and in alcoholics. Zinc deficiency is associated with atrophy of the thymus gland and depressed cell-mediated immunity, skin atrophy, poor wound healing, loss of appetite, persistent diarrhoea, apathy and loss of hair. A normal diet contains plenty of zinc but a small zinc supplement is said to shorten the duration of the common cold.

minerals

inorganic substances which are obtained in a well-balanced diet. The substances required in the largest amounts (sometimes known as macrominerals) are sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, and many others are essential in smaller amounts. Minerals are essential in all metabolic processes, from maintenance of cell volume and structure to muscle contraction and relaxation, regulation of acid-base equilibrium, protection from oxidative stress, bone metabolism, immune function and haemoglobin synthesis. No mineral supplements should be required for athletes who are consuming a well-balanced diet but they frequently take them, especially iron, magnesium and chromium. See Table 1.
Table 1: Micronutrients: minerals
Name and chemical symbolReference nutrient intake (adults, per day)SourcesFunctionsDeficiencyExcess
Calcium Ca700 mgMilk and milk products, green vegetables, soya beans, white bread, hard water
  • Crucial role in all cellular function, in neural transmission, muscle contraction, blood coagulation.
  • As phosphate in bones and teeth
  • Dietary deficiency not uncommon.
  • Rickets, osteomalacia from failure of Ca absorption in Vit D deficiency.
  • Low blood [Ca2+] causes tetany
Calcium deposits in soft tissue can occur, but probably not related to high intake
Chlorine Cl3.4 g (as chloride)Salt-containing foods
  • Major anion in ECF.
  • Role in maintaining electrical gradient across cell membranes
Unlikely with normal dietAs NaCl, risk factor for high blood pressure
Chromium Cr25 μgVegetables, cereals, meats, vegetable oils, whole grainsCo-factor for some enzymes involved in glucose and energy metabolism
  • Rare.
  • Impaired glucose metabolism
  • Inhibition of enzymes.
  • Occupational exposures can cause skin and kidney damage
Copper Cu900 μgMeat, drinking waterCo-factor for some enzymes; intermediate in electron transfer during oxidative phosphorylationLow activity of antioxidant enzymesVery high intake can cause liver damage
Iodine I140 μgSeafood, iodized salt, milk and milk products, meat and eggsSynthesis of thyroid hormonesThyroid swelling (goitre) with hypothyroidism: low BMR, lethargyRarely any effect; may exacerbate some skin diseases
Iron Fe
  • Women 14.8 mg
  • Men 8.7 mg
Liver, kidney, red meat, egg yolk, wholegrains, pulses, dark green vegetables, dried fruit, treacle, cocoa, molassesComponent of haemoglobin, myoglobin and many enzymes
  • Iron deficiency anaemia not uncommon.
  • In childhood, poor growth; impaired intellectual development
Can be toxic if very excessive. (from blood transfusions rather than from diet); gastrointestinal upset; may promote vascular disease
Fluoride F3-4 mgDrinking water, mostly as calcium fluoride; tea, seafoodMay be important in maintenance of bone structureIncreased risk of tooth decayUnlikely from dietary sources
Magnesium Mg
  • Women 270 mg
  • Men 300 mg
Cereals, milk, nuts, seeds, and green vegetablesCo-factor for enzymes essential in metabolism; role in calcium homeostasis; skeletal development; neuromuscular functionUncommon; can occur with malabsorption or in chronic renal failure, when it accompanies hypocalcaemiaUnlikely from dietary sources
Phosphorus-P550 mg (as phosphate)Milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, poultry, grains, fishAdenosine phosphate compounds vital in energy metabolism. With Ca in bones and teethOnly in severe malnutrition; muscle weakness, bone pain, rickets, anorexia, anaemiaIn treatment of osteoporosis or bone cancer with biphosphonates
Potassium K3.5 gFruit, vegetables, meat, wholegrains
  • Major intracellular cation; muscle contraction and nerve excitability.
  • Linked to acid-base regulation
  • Poor dietary intake rare. Can occur with prolonged use of diuretics and purgatives.
  • Muscular weakness; depression; confusion; cardiac arrhythmia
High ECF [K+] (hyperkalaemia) causes cardiac arrest
Selenium Se
  • Women 50 μg
  • Men 70 μg
Seafood, meat, grains, wheat flourKey component in the endogenous antioxidant, glutathione peroxidaseHealth implications of low intake in UK currently under DoH review. May cause abnormality of heart muscleExcessive supplements: hair loss, skin rash, neurological disorder
Sodium Na1.6 gMainly as salt: table salt, and in milk, meat, vegetables, sauces, pickles, processed foods, snacks, cheeseMajor extracellular cation; linked to ECF volume, hence to blood volume and blood pressure. Component of bone mineralLoss in sweat and diarrhoea; dilution in body fluids due to excess water intake. Weakness, cramp; faintness, confusionOedema, hypertension
Zinc Zn
  • Women 7.0 mg
  • Men 9.5 mg
Red meat, dairy products, eggs, wholegrains, peas, beans, nuts, lentils
  • Co-factor for many enzymes.
  • Synthesis of some proteins. Wound healing; immune system; physical and sexual development
  • Retarded skeletal growth; sexual immaturity.
  • Anorexia, fatigue
  • Nausea, vomiting, or anaemia with chronic excess.
  • Also decreases iron and copper bioavailability

zinc,

n an element/mineral found in meat, nuts, seeds, eggs, whole grains, and brewer's yeast. Has been used to remedy deficiencies (relatively common) and to prevent infections and to treat upper respiratory conditions, oral herpes (topical), acne, anorexia nervosa, macular degeneration, male infertility, and sickle cell anemia. Zinc is toxic when taken long-term in high doses. Caution is advised for patients taking diuretic medications, fluoroquinolones, penicillamine, and tetracyclines. Caution is advised for children and pregnant or lactating women, for whom the maximum daily intake is 40 mg. Also called
zinc sulfate, zinc gluconate, zinc citrate, zinc picolinate, or
chelated zinc.

zinc

(zingk)
A metallic element and essential bioelement; many salts are used in medicine; a cofactor in many proteins.
[Ger. Zink]

zinc (Zn) (zingk),

n a bluish-white chemical element used in medicine in the form of various salts and as a component in some silver amalgams.
zinc oxide,
n a zinc compound used as a topical protectant; prescribed for a wide range of minor skin irritations.
zinc oxide and eugenol
n two substances that react chemically to form a relatively hard mass. When modified by certain additives, the material is used for impression pastes, root canal fillings, surgical dressings, temporary filling materials, and cementing media.
zinc oxide-eugenol cement,
zinc oxyphosphate
n See cements.
zinc phosphate cement
zinc polycarbonate cement
n See cements.

zinc

a chemical element, atomic number 30, atomic weight 65.37, symbol Zn. See Table 6.
Zinc is a trace element that is a component of several enzymes, including DNA and RNA polymerases, and carbonic anhydrase. Zinc salts are used in skin lotions, eye washes, the treatment and prevention of footrot of sheep and facial eczema of sheep and cattle.

zinc acetate
a salt used as an astringent and styptic.
zinc cadmium sulfide
used in the preparation of fluoroscopic screens; is fluorescent and emits yellow-green light when excited by x-rays.
zinc carbonate
a mild astringent; used mainly as calamine.
zinc chromate
an industrial compound used in cold galvanizing of metal. Accidental access causes diarrhea and fatal enteritis.
zinc finger motif
sequence of approximately 30 amino acids, forming a helix-turn-helix, believed to form a structure that includes tetrahedrally coordinated zinc (II) ions. Found in many eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral DNA-binding proteins.
zinc finger protein
DNA-binding proteins that contain zinc-finger motifs.
zinc gelatin
a mixture of zinc oxide, gelatin, glycerin and purified water; used topically as a protectant.
zinc gluconate
a source of supplementary zinc.
hereditary zinc deficiency
lethal trait A46; see inherited parakeratosis.
zinc nutritional deficiency
causes parakeratosis in pigs, a chronic, afebrile, noninflammatory disease of the epidermis characterized by crusty proliferation and cracking of the skin. Dogs fed diets with high levels of calcium or cereals may have poor absorption of zinc and develop signs of deficiency, primarily in the skin. See also zinc-responsive dermatosis.
zinc ointment
a preparation of zinc oxide and mineral oil in white ointment; used topically as an astringent and protectant.
zinc oversupplementation
causes hemolytic anemia, anorexia and vomiting.
zinc oxide
a compound used as a topical astringent and protectant. Inhalation of fumes causes interstitial emphysema and atelectasis.
zinc phosphate
used as a phosphate-bonded cement in restorative dentistry.
zinc phosphide
used at one time as a rodenticide. When ingested the poisonous gas phosphine is liberated and kills the animal without diagnostic signs or lesions.
zinc poisoning
is usually chronic and causes stiffness and lameness with particular involvement of the shoulder joint in which there is a degenerative arthritis. In acute poisoning there is gastroenteritis with vomiting.
zinc-responsive dermatoses
see parakeratosis, zinc-responsive dermatosis.
zinc stearate
a compound of zinc with stearic and palmitic acids; used as a water-repellent protective powder in dermatoses.
zinc sulfate
a compound used as an ophthalmic astringent, in skin lotions (see white lotion), for sheep footrot, and the treatment of facial eczema. It is the common form of zinc for oral supplementation and treatment of zinc-responsive diseases.
zinc sulfate flotation test
used to demonstrate nematode eggs, protozoan cysts, and larvae in feces and bronchial secretions.
zinc sulfate turbidity test
1. serum globulins are precipitated by zinc sulfate. The test is used for the semiquantitative assessment of the immunological status of foals and calves when there is a question of whether they have suckled to receive immunoglubulins.
2. an outdated liver function test.
zinc undecylenate
a compound used topically in 20% ointment as an antifungal agent. See also undecylenic acid.

Patient discussion about zinc

Q. If an alcoholic consumes zinc, will he be safe? Hi! While reading through the medical journal, I came to know that if an alcoholic consumes zinc, will he be safe?

A. Approximately 30%–50% of alcoholics have low zinc status because ethanol consumption decreases intestinal absorption of zinc and increases urinary zinc -

excretion-http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16099027?dopt=Abstract

zinc is a necessary mineral you need for the immune system, brain function and other systems of the body.

Q. If an alcoholic consumes zinc, will he be safe? Hi! While reading through the medical journal, I came to know that if an alcoholic consumes zinc, will he be safe?

A. I am glad that you are regularly updating the medical journals. Consumption of zinc is a safe and effective means of affording protection from alcohol induced tissue injury. Zinc deficiency is an underlying feature of alcohol abuse.

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