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Paul (1854–1915). German bacteriologist. He studied medicine and was early drawn to research on aniline dyes. He did vast work on the problems of serology and immunity and is known preeminently for his discovery of salvarsan or “606,” an arsenical compound later called arsphenamine, which was a cure for syphilis and the first effective chemotherapeutic agent against a microbial disease. He differentiated the leukemias, classified the leukocytes, described polychromatophilia, and is generally regarded as the founder of hematology. In 1908 Ehrlich shared with Metchnikoff the Nobel prize for medicine or physiology for his work in immunology.