Studies have shown that ectotherms
subject to high temperatures, but within the normal range they experience in the field, suffer denaturation of cellular proteins (Hofmann & Somero 1995); replacing these proteins requires energy that must be diverted from other tasks including, perhaps, maintaining the structures required for limb extension and retraction.
Diurnal temperature fluctuations impose different effects on ectotherms
compared with constant temperatures due to the effects of daily maximum or/and minimum temperatures.
Like today's sea-faring tuna and great white sharks, dinos share some traits with both ectotherms
(what people mean when they say "cold-blooded") and endotherms ("warm-blooded").
Although most ectotherms
have only limited ability to thermoregulate via physiological adjustment, many use behavioral adjustments to regulate body temperatures at remarkably narrow species-specific levels (Huey 1991, Madeira et al.
Populations of John's Snapper farthest from the equator had the largest body sizes, in line with James's rule, and the fastest growth rates, contrary to the temperature-size rule for ectotherms
Hence, oxygen could be the key resource limiting growth in aquatic ectotherms
This can occur only in ectotherms
, animals that do not maintain a constant body temperature.
This needs to be taken into account for scientific studies of other cold-blooded animals, or ectotherms
, such as reptiles and amphibians," he said.
Metabolic rates of ectotherms
typically increase with increasing temperature (Bennett and Dawson, 1976).
Temperature acts as a barrier to the distribution of many animals but especially ectotherms
such as spiders.
Instead, these ectotherms
keep a healthy body temperature by moving between colder and warmer areas.
In the lake frog (Rana ridibunda), West Nile viremia capable of infecting mosquitoes (14,15) develops, and antibodies develop in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) and other ectotherms
alter natural infection (16,17).