She suggests trying EMDR
before turning to medication when patients relate their anxiety, depression, hypervigilance, nightmares, insomnia, or anger to a difficult experience.
Within the phases of the EMDR
protocol, clients are asked to bring up the disturbing image, notice what they are thinking and feeling, and hold the image/thoughts/feelings in consciousness while following the clinician's fingers, an object, or flashing lights, or any other sensory stimulation, in a bilateral motion.
CBT and EMDR
have the best evidence base as psychological interventions for the treatment of PTSD.
Francine Shapiro, an American psychologist, first described EMDR
in 1989 as a psychological treatment to alleviate the distress associated with traumatic memories (Hogberg, Pagani, Sundin, Soares and Aberg-Wistedt, 2007).
international Association reports that the treatment guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association and the international Society for Traumatic Stress Studies both designate EMDR
as "an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress" and also cites the U.
Like other types of therapy, EMDR
makes an effort to alter the way an individual reacts to traumatic memories.
combines cognitive therapy with directed eye movements.
may be considered a special application of imaginal exposure, because it uses the repeated guided visual imagery of the traumatic memory; however, it has been considered unique because it involves the elicitation of rapid, saccadic eye movements during the imaginal exposure session and these movements are considered to be an important treatment element (Zoellner, Fitzgibbons & Foa, 2001).
has been championed by some ex-gay therapists, though the EMDR
Institute is agnostic on such uses.
Developed in the 1980s, EMDR
works on the theory that distressing experiences become 'frozen' and recur like action replays.
The second Issue is devoted to a special section on psychotherapy outcome, with discussion of variations of Rorschach variables in therapeutic follow-up; a small-scale comparative study of psychodynamic consultation and the Rorschach with adolescents; assessing changes in psychoanalytic psychodynamic therapy with an early adolescent; and a case study of a human- caused trauma survivor to demonstrate evaluating an EMDR
treatment outcome using the Rorschach, the TAT, and the IES-R.
With more than 70 practitioner associates, modalities include psychiatry, psychology, acupuncture, meditation, EMDR
(Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), Chinese medicine, neurofeedback, biofeedback, nutrition counseling, meditation, and noga.