dyspnea

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dyspnea

 [disp-ne´ah]
breathlessness or shorthess of breath; labored or difficult breathing. It is a sign of a variety of disorders and is primarily an indication of inadequate ventilation or of insufficient amounts of oxygen in the circulating blood. adj., adj dyspne´ic.

Dyspnea can be symptomatic of a variety of disorders, both acute and chronic. Acute conditions include acute infections and inflammations of the respiratory tract, obstruction by an inhaled foreign object, anaphylactic swelling of the tracheal and bronchial mucosa, and traumatic injury to the chest. Chronic disorders usually fall into the category of chronic airflow limitation, or are associated with pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure. A fat embolism resulting from the release of fat particles from bone marrow at the time of a fracture of a long bone also can cause dyspnea.


Patient Care. The dyspneic patient has some degree of difficulty in meeting the basic physiologic need for adequate levels of oxygen in the blood and the transportation of that oxygen to all cells of the body. Whatever the cause of dyspnea, the plan of care begins with treating the patient and providing adequate oxygenation.

A thorough assessment of the patient's condition is necessary in order to ascertain the extent of the problem and the urgency of the need. A current and past history are obtained and a physical examination completed as soon as possible. If the patient is acutely short of breath, corrective measures should be instituted promptly. In cases of acute respiratory distress, it may be necessary to intubate the patient, begin oxygen therapy, and obtain laboratory arterial blood gas data. If there is airway obstruction, clearing the airway is necessary, or a tracheotomy may be performed.

If the patient is suffering from an acute attack of dyspnea and has a history of chronic airflow limitation, certain nursing measures can help relieve anxiety and improve ventilation. The patient should respond favorably to a calm, reassuring manner and an explanation of what is being done to relieve the shortness of breath. High Fowler's position or orthopneic position with the arms resting on pillows on an overbed table will help improve chest expansion. Helping the patient relax muscles not needed for breathing conserves oxygen and promotes rest. If abdominal distention, ascites, or a massive tumor interferes with chest expansion and produces dyspnea, having the patient lie on one side and supporting the abdomen with pillows may provide some relief.

Once dyspneic patients are comfortable and less apprehensive, they may need instruction in prolonged, controlled exhalation. If they already know how to do pursed-lip breathing (inhaling slowly through the nose and exhaling slowly through pursed lips), they may need to be reminded of it and encouraged to use it to improve breathing.

Special observations and methods of assessment of a patient who has dyspnea include: auscultation of the chest for abnormal breath and voice sounds, lung aeration, rales, and rhonchi; inspection of the chest for respiratory rate and rhythm and for symmetrical expansion; inspection of the skin, lips, and nail beds for cyanosis; and percussion of the chest for abnormal resonance. Results of arterial blood gas analyses should be monitored and the patient observed for fatigability when engaged in various levels of activity.
exertional dyspnea dyspnea provoked by physical effort or exertion.
functional dyspnea respiratory distress not associated with organic disease and unrelated to exertion; often associated with anxiety states.
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea respiratory distress related to posture (especially reclining at night), usually attributed to congestive heart failure with pulmonary edema.

dysp·ne·a

(disp-nē'ă), In the diphthong pn, the p is silent only at the beginning of a word. Although dyspne'a is the correct pronunciation, the alternative pronunciation dysp'nea is widespread in the U.S.
Shortness of breath, a subjective difficulty or distress in breathing, usually associated with disease of the heart or lungs; occurs normally during intense physical exertion or at high altitude.
[G. dyspnoia, fr. dys-, bad, + pnoē, breathing]

dyspnea

/dysp·nea/ (disp-ne´ah) labored or difficult breathing.dyspne´ic
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea  respiratory distress that awakens patients from sleep, related to posture (especially reclining at night), attributed to congestive heart failure with pulmonary edema or sometimes to chronic pulmonary disease.

dyspnea

(dĭsp-nē′ə)
n.
Difficulty in breathing, often associated with lung or heart disease and resulting in shortness of breath. Also called air hunger.

dysp·ne′ic (-nē′ĭk) adj.

dyspnea

[dispnē′ə]
Etymology: Gk, dys + pnoia, breathing
a distressful subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing that may be caused by many disorders, including certain heart and respiratory conditions, strenuous exercise, or anxiety. Also spelled dyspnoea. Also called breathlessness. Compare hyperpnea. dyspneal, dyspneic, adj.

dyspnea

Breathlessness, shortness of breath, SOB Pulmonary medicine Difficult painful breathing, SOB or respiratory distress; dyspnea is subjective, difficult to quantify, and may indicate serious disease of the heart, lungs, or airways. See Nocturnal dyspnea, Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.

dysp·ne·a

(disp-nē'ă)
Shortness of breath, a subjective difficulty or distress in breathing, usually associated with disease of the heart or lungs; occurs normally during intense physical exertion or at high altitude.
Synonym(s): dyspnoea.
[G. dyspnoia, fr. dys-, bad, + pnoē, breathing]

dyspnea

laboured breathing, with breathlessness.

Dyspnea

A difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath, typically associated with some form of heart or lung disease. Also known as air hunger.

dyspnea (dispˑ·nē·),

n labored breathing may be due to vigorous exercise, anxiety, or heart and lung conditions.

dysp·ne·a

(disp-nē'ă) In the diphthong pn, the p is silent only at the beginning of a word.
Shortness of breath, a subjective difficulty or distress in breathing, usually associated with disease of the heart or lungs; occurs normally during intense physical exertion or at high altitude.
Synonym(s): dyspnoea.
[G. dyspnoia, fr. dys-, bad, + pnoē, breathing]

dyspnea (dispnē´ə),

n difficult, labored, or gasping breathing; inspiration, expiration, or both may be involved.

dyspnea

labored or difficult breathing; a sign of a variety of disorders and is primarily an indication of inadequate ventilation, or of insufficient amounts of oxygen in the circulating blood.
Enlarge picture
Severe respiratory distress in a cow with atypicalpneumonia. By permission from Blowey RW, WeaverAD, Diseases and Disorders of Cattle, Mosby, 1997

expiratory dyspnea
the dyspnea is primary during the expiratory phase of respiration. Usually associated with lower airway obstruction.
inspiratory dyspnea
the dyspnea is primarily during the inspiratory phase of respiration. Usually associated with upper airway obstructions and sometimes disorders of the pleura.

Patient discussion about dyspnea

Q. can one prevent asthma attack from happening from the moment he/she feels breathless???

A. If the patient feels breathless, than it's no longer preventing the attack but rather treating it. Prompt treatment of asthma attacks is very important and achieved mainly with bronchodilators (medications taken through inhalation), mainly short-acting beta agonists. More advanced treatments is usually given by medical professional as deemed needed.

Preventing asthma attacks is achieved through better control of the disease (with drugs such as inhaled steroids) and through avoidance of triggers such as infections of the lung (vaccinations etc.), avoidance of chemical irritants, pet allergens, cold, dry air etc.

You may read more here(www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/asthma.html )
and if you have any questions, you may want to consult your doctor.

Q. Is there a known connection between asthma and cat allergy? I've been with asthma for many years now but usually get several attacks every year and they are caused from being around pine trees or when I'm with a cold- it also affects my breathing. Lately I get serious attacks after being in a house with a cat. I've never knew a cat allergy- I used to pat many and never got breathing difficulties as a result of a touch with them and lately it happends every time. Are cat a known asthma cause? can I do anything to prevent that?Can I maybe overcome it by being next to cats more often and getting myself used to it?

A. you may be becoming more sensitive to cats an other things--there are drugs on the market that you take everyday to control asthma/allergies--that can prevent you from even having an attack--i am a retired respriratory therpist/emt so i dont no about natural/chinese medicines---i will tell you this asthma can kill --donot try to treat yourself--i dont no what kind of dr you have but--go to a pulmonary DR. with asthma you have to take your meds everyday because skipping can cause you to be come more sensitive to allergens an can cause you to go into a bad attack---mrfoot56--feel better.

More discussions about dyspnea