metabolic syndrome

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metabolic

 [met″ah-bol´ik]
pertaining to or of the nature of metabolism.
metabolic disease a disease caused by some defect in the chemical reactions of the cells of the body.
metabolic syndrome a combination including at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low level of high-density lipoproteins, hypertension, and high fasting plasma glucose level. It is associated with an increased risk for development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

metabolic syndrome

a group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is defined as the presence of any three of the following: 1) increased waist circumference (>102 cm for men, >88 cm for women), 2) elevated triglycerides >150 mg/dL, 3) low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL for men, less than 50 mg/dL for women), 4) hypertension (systolic BP >130 and/or diastolic >85) or antihypertensive medication use, 5) impaired fasting glucose (>110 mg/dL).

The metabolic syndrome comprises several abnormalities, each an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which have been associated on the premise of a unitary cause. The components of the syndrome are (1) insulin resistance manifested by fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dL (6.11 mmol/L) or higher, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia (2) central obesity, defined as a waist circumference over 40 inches (102 cm) in men and over 35 inches (89 cm) in women; (3) systemic hypertension (systolic blood pressure over 130, diastolic pressure over 85); (4) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL (1.03 mmol/L) in men and less than 50 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L) in women; and (5) triglyceride 150 mg/dL (1.69 mmol/L) or more. For both men and women with all five of these stigmata, the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke are more than twice those of the general population. Additional features of the syndrome sometimes noted are high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, hyperuricemia, ovarian hyperproduction of androgen, and hypercoagulability of the blood. When the syndrome is defined as the presence of at least 3 of the 5 numbered disorders above, it is estimated to affect 23% of adults in the U.S. (approximately 47 million persons), including 10-15 million with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). It is particularly prevalent among non white populations in both developing and industrialized nations, and in those populations its prevalence is disproportionately high among children. The basis for the syndrome is genetic, and insulin resistance is considered the primary metabolic defect. There is considerable overlap between genetic pools of those with metabolic syndrome and of those with type 2 DM. Adoption of a sedentary lifestyle and development of obesity are believed to promote progression toward the fully developed syndrome and toward DM. The treatment of metabolic syndrome, directed at prevention of cardiovascular disease and of progression to type 2 DM, consists of aggressive efforts to identify patients so affected and to correct all metabolic abnormalities identified. Weight control by adoption of a low-calorie, low-cholesterol diet and regular aerobic exercise is essential. Hypertension and lipid abnormalities are corrected with pharmacologic agents.

metabolic syndrome

n.
A combination of metabolic abnormalities that sometimes accompany abdominal obesity, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, elevated fasting blood levels of glucose, and elevated blood pressure, and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

metabolic syndrome

a combination including at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low level of high-density lipoproteins, hypertension, and high fasting plasma glucose level. It is associated with an increased risk for development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

metabolic syndrome

A condition characterised by dysregulation of serum glucose, insulin resistance, a predisposition to type-2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, decreased HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Management
Diet, exercise.

metabolic syndrome

Vascular disease A clustering of medical conditions–ASHD, type 2 DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, often linked to claudication

met·a·bol·ic syn·drome

(met'ă-bol'ik sin'drōm)
A group of health risks that increase the chances of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The criteria for this syndrome are any 3 of these 5 risk factors: (1) BP > 130/80 mmHg; (2) abdominal obesity (men > 40 inches and women > 35 inches); (3) triglycerides > 150 mg/dL; (4) HDL cholesterol for men < 40 mg/dL and women < 50 mg/dL; and (5) fasting glucose > 110mg/dL.
Synonym(s): insulin-resistance syndrome, multiple metabolic syndrome, syndrome X.

metabolic syndrome

A dangerous development in obese people that features low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised triglycerides, glucose intolerance with insulin resistance and raised blood pressure. The syndrome seriously increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An amendment to the definition published in late 2005 stresses the importance of a waist circumference of more than 94 cm in men or 80 cm in women and blood pressures of greater than 130/85. The metabolic syndrome is common in Western populations with a high prevalence of obesity. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 2003 that 24 per cent of the US adult population had the metabolic syndrome. The syndrome is transmitted through the mother and there are recent indications that it is the result of a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA.

Metabolic syndrome

A group of risk factors for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. It includes abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood glucose levels, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The metabolic syndrome is sometimes called the insulin resistance syndrome.
Mentioned in: Insulin Resistance

met·a·bol·ic syn·drome

(met'ă-bol'ik sin'drōm)
Group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

metabolic

pertaining to internal metabolism.

metabolic acidemia
acidemia due to metabolic error.
metabolic bone disease
includes a range of bone diseases associated with metabolic diseases, e.g. secondary hyperparathyroidism, rickets and osteoporosis.
metabolic defect
generally an inherited defect that is present at birth, but which is not necessarily evident clinically for several months afterwards. The defect creates a metabolic error, which leads to the accumulation of end products which cause clinical signs, e.g. mannosidosis, porphyria or an exaggerated response from an end-organ, e.g. inherited goiter. See also inborn error of metabolism.
metabolic diseases
diseases in which normal metabolic processes are disturbed and a resulting absence or shortfall of a normal metabolite causes disease, e.g. hypocalcemia in cows, or an accumulation of the end products of metabolism causes a clinical illness, e.g. acetonemia of dairy cows. Many diseases in this group really have their beginnings in a nutritional deficiency state. See also production diseases.
metabolic encephalopathy
many disorders of metabolism can lead to neurologic abnormalities through alterations in electrolytes and acid-base balance, accumulation of endogenous toxins. See also encephalopathy.
metabolic error
see metabolic defect (above).
metabolic inhibition technique
a virus neutralization test in tissue culture in which phenol-red indicator is used to detect the acid metabolic products of actively metabolizing cells or the lack of metabolism when cells are infected and destroyed by the virus.
metabolic laminitis
metabolic myopathies
muscular dystrophies caused by metabolic defects; include systemic glycogenoses, deposits of a PAS-positive glycoprotein, the lipid storage disease of cats caused by carnitine deficiency.
metabolic pathways
groupings of enzymic processes leading to the synthesis or breakdown of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids.
metabolic polymyopathy
a muscle disease associated with a metabolic disorder, e.g. hyperadrenocorticism.
metabolic polyneuropathy
a disease of the nerves associated with a metabolic disorder, e.g. uremia, diabetes mellitus or hypothyroidism.
metabolic profile
results of a spectrum of tests of metabolic functions.
metabolic profile test
metabolic rate
the rate of energy metabolism in the body. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy consumption by the body when it is completely at rest.
metabolic syndrome
characterized by hypertension, insulin resistance, an abnormal plasma lipid profile, and obesity.
metabolic toxins
include histamine, other toxic amines, ketone bodies, phenols and cresols from the large intestine, which are normal end-products of metabolism and indigestion but if their normal excretion and detoxication are impeded, cause intoxication. See also toxin.
metabolic water
the water produced in the body by oxidative metabolism of food; it represents 5-10% of the body's water utilization.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Company's lead program targets Type 2 diabetes with the potential to expand indications into the treatment of multiple aspects of dysmetabolic syndrome.
Many other names, including syndrome X, dysmetabolic syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome, plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet have been used to describe this condition.
7) for the classification of dysmetabolic syndrome.
Histologic iron score Pathology 0 [greater than or equal to] 6 Hepatitis C only 15 30 Hepatitis C 1 HIV 2 5 Hepatitis C 1 hepatitis B 0 2 Hepatitis C 1 alcoholism 1 0 Hepatitis B only 1 1 Alcoholism 0 1 Hemochromatosis 0 2 Dysmetabolic syndrome 1 1 Other 0 4 Total 20 46
Nutritional management of diabetes mellitus and dysmetabolic syndrome.