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Epidemiology It is most common in warm, dry climates; infection is by direct transmission, often among families, and in institutions; the eggs hatch in stomach and small intestine, penetrate villi and metamorphose into cercocysts; recalcitrant infections are maintained by autoinfection
Treatment Praziquantel, niclosamide
Symptoms are often absent, but abdominal discomfort, bloating, or changes in bowel habits may be present. If tapeworms are very numerous, they may cause intestinal obstruction (but this is rare). Some species of tapeworms may cause severe disease: Echinococcus can cause life-threatening cysts in the liver or pericardium; Taenia solium can encyst in the brain and cause seizures or strokelike symptoms.