In the equations parameters are D duty ratio
, T switching period, f switching frequency, [V.
5] are solved using both GA and FPA for the duty ratio
Combining (2), (3), and (4) with the condition of unit input power factor, the duty ratios
are obtained by
These MPs are charged by many electrons and generate strong repulsive force in the specimen with the increase in duty ratio
(is defined as the ratio between the pulse duration (T) and the period (P) of a rectangular waveform) because a negative charge dominates the specimen surface as a result of sheath oscillation.
The fact that mutation of this residue affects the myosin duty ratio
and strain sensitivity may very well be applicable in other myosins as well.
In these control methods, the capacitor voltage is controlled by the shoot-through duty ratio
The PV panel voltage is perturbed with the change in the duty ratio
of the boost converter.
n the duty ratio
is 1, the resonant converter can operate in two modes via mode 1 and mode 2.
To extend device flexibility, the high efficiency AL9910 offers two separate dimming inputs for LED brightness control: a linear dimming input controlled by the application of a dc control voltage, and a low frequency PWM dimming input that accepts an external TTL compatible control signal with a duty ratio
of 0-100% and at a frequency of up to a few kHz.
8 generates the peak value of the duty ratio
information () in order to regulate the magnitude of the grid current.
In the pulse condition, the duty ratio
is less than 33% and the frequency is higher than 50Hz.
The new proposed topology provides higher boost ability with the same shoot-through duty ratio
, while maintaining the advantages of the qZS-CHB-MLI.