aortic insufficiency

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insufficiency

 [in″sŭ-fish´en-se]
inability to perform properly an allotted function; called also incompetence.
adrenal insufficiency abnormally diminished activity of the adrenal gland; called also hypoadrenalism.
adrenocortical insufficiency abnormally diminished secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex; see also addison's disease. Called also hypoadrenocorticism and hypocorticism.
aortic insufficiency inadequate closure of the aortic valve, permitting aortic regurgitation.
coronary insufficiency decreased supply of blood to the myocardium resulting from constriction or obstruction of the coronary arteries, but not accompanied by necrosis of the myocardial cells. Called also myocardial ischemia.
ileocecal insufficiency inability of the ileocecal valve to prevent backflow of contents from the cecum into the ileum.
mitral insufficiency inadequate closure of the mitral valve, permitting mitral regurgitation.
placental insufficiency dysfunction of the placenta, with reduction in the area of exchange of nutrients; it often leads to fetal growth retardation.
pulmonary valve insufficiency inadequate closure of the pulmonary valve, permitting pulmonic regurgitation.
respiratory insufficiency see respiratory insufficiency.
thyroid insufficiency hypothyroidism.
tricuspid insufficiency incomplete closure of the tricuspid valve, resulting in tricuspid regurgitation.
valvular insufficiency failure of a cardiac valve to close perfectly, causing valvular regurgitation; see also aortic, mitral, pulmonary, and tricuspid insufficiency.
velopharyngeal insufficiency inadequate velopharyngeal closure, due to a condition such as cleft palate or muscular dysfunction, resulting in defective speech.
venous insufficiency inadequacy of the venous valves and impairment of venous return from the lower limbs (venous stasis), often with edema and sometimes with stasis ulcers at the ankle.

a·or·tic in·suf·fi·cien·cy

functional incompetence of the aortic valve, with resulting regurgitation of blood from the aorta during left ventricular diastole; may be congenital, inflammatory (for example, in rheumatic fever or SLE), or degenerative. See: aortic regurgitation.

aortic insufficiency

aortic insufficiency

The reflow of blood back from the aorta into the left ventricle due to incompetency of the aortic valve.
 
Clinical findings
Dyspnoea on exertion, orthopnea, fatigue, ± angina, increased pulse pressure, systolic hypertension with increased afterload on left ventricle.
 
Aetiology
Congenital or acquired valve defect of either the aortic leaflets (infectious endocarditis, rheumatic fever) or the aortic root (annuloaortic ectasia, Marfan syndrome, aortic dissection, collagen vascular disease, syphilis).
 
Examination
Increased pulse pressure (Corrigan’s pulse, Hill sign, Musset sign, Quincke’s pulse), systolic murmur, diastolic rumble (Austin Flint murmur over cardiac apex).
 
Workup
Doppler echocardiography to estimate severity of AR, confirmed by aortography.
 
Management
Early valve replacement surgery, guided by the ‘55 rule’—i.e., performed when the ejection fraction is < 55% and/or the end-systolic dimension = 55 mm.

a·or·tic re·gur·gi·ta·tion

(ā-ōr'tik rē-gŭr'ji-tā'shŭn)
Reflux of blood through an incompetent aortic valve into the left ventricle during ventricular diastole.
Synonym(s): aortic insufficiency, Corrigan disease.

insufficiency

inability to perform properly an allotted function.

adrenal insufficiency
hypoadrenalism.
aortic insufficiency
inadequacy of the aortic valve, permitting blood to flow back into the left ventricle of the heart.
cardiac insufficiency
inability of the heart to perform its function properly; heart failure.
coronary insufficiency
decreased supply of blood to the myocardium resulting from constriction or obstruction of the coronary arteries, but not accompanied by necrosis of the myocardial cells. Called also ischemic myocardial necrosis.
hepatic insufficiency
inadequate liver function, short of hepatic failure.
ileocecal insufficiency
inability of the ileocecal valve to prevent backflow of contents from the cecum into the ileum.
pulmonary insufficiency
insufficiency of the pulmonary valve, permitting blood to flow into the right ventricle of the heart.
respiratory insufficiency
a condition in which respiratory function is inadequate to meet the body's needs when increased physical activity places extra demands on it. See also respiratory insufficiency.
thyroid insufficiency
hypothyroidism.
valvular insufficiency
failure of a cardiac valve to close perfectly, causing the blood to flow back through the orifice (valvular regurgitation); named, according to the valve affected, aortic, mitral, pulmonary or tricuspid insufficiency.
velopharyngeal insufficiency
failure of velopharyngeal closure due to cleft palate, muscular dysfunction, etc., resulting in defective swallowing with regurgitation through the nose.
venous insufficiency
inadequacy of the venous valves with impairment of venous drainage, resulting in edema.