bit depth

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A description of the number of colours or shades of gray a monitor can display or a scanner can process; the higher the bit depth, the higher the number of colour hues that can be supported

bit depth

The number of shades of gray in a digital image. Bit depth is defined as 2n , where the multiplier 2 indicates that the image is in black and white and n represents the power to which the computer can multiply this function. Therefore a bit depth of 21 would produce 2 shades of gray; a bit depth of 212 would produce 4096 shades of gray. Digital radiography, CT, and MR images are produced with bit depths of 10 or 12.
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Practically downsample algorithm reduces the size of image by downsample factor and upsample algorithm restores original size of image.
By using downsampling algorithim image size is reduced by downsample factor of each channel here subsampled (downsampled and upsampled) factor 2 is selected for all channels.
In downsampler block of each channel, size of image with rows and columns are reduced by downsample factor.