dopamine

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dopamine

 [do´pah-mēn]
a compound produced by the decarboxylation of dopa; it is the direct precursor in the synthesis of norepinephrine and is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It is administered intravenously to correct hemodynamic imbalance in persons with shock because it increases blood pressure, especially systolic pressure, as well as urinary output; it is also used as a cardiac stimulant.

do·pa·mine (DM),

(dō'pă-mēn),
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine; neurotransmitter is the peripheral and central nervous systems; depletion of dopamine produces Parkinson disease.

dopamine

/do·pa·mine/ (-mēn) a catecholamine formed in the body by the decarboxylation of dopa; it is an intermediate product in the synthesis of norepinephrine, and acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The hydrochloride salt is used to correct hemodynamic balance in the treatment of shock and is also used as a cardiac stimulant.

dopamine

(dō′pə-mēn′)
n.
A monoamine neurotransmitter formed in the brain by the decarboxylation of dopa and essential to the normal functioning of the central nervous system. A reduction in its concentration within the brain is associated with Parkinson's disease.

dopamine

[dō′pəmin]
a naturally occurring sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter that is the precursor of norepinephrine. It is produced in the substantia nigra and transmitted to the putamen and caudate nucleus. It has an inhibitory effect on movement. A depletion of dopamine produces the symptoms of rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia that are characteristic of Parkinson's disease. It is available as an intravenously injectable drug. Dopamine has potent dopaminergic, beta-adrenergic, and alpha-adrenergic receptor activity. See also dopamine hydrochloride.

dopamine

Neurology A catecholamine hormone and neurotransmitter essential to CNS activity; it is involved motor control, cognition, and reward; abnormal dopamine levels occur in Parkinson's disease, paranoia, memory and concentration defects; dopamine may modulate endorphin levels, altering perception of pain and pleasure; it restricts prolactin, affecting libido See Biogenic amine, Catecholamine, Indolamine, Serotonin.

do·pa·mine

(DM) (dō'pă-mēn)
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine.

dopamine

A monoamine NEUROTRANSMITTER and hormone with an adrenaline-like action. Dopamine is the principal neurotransmitter in the extrapyramidal system. It is formed in the brain from the amino acid tyrosine via dopa and the latter, in the form of levodopa is used to treat PARKINSON'S DISEASE. Dopamine is the precursor of noradrenaline. It is also concerned with mood, memory and food intake. Excess is associated with psychiatric disorders. Dopamine is converted into at least 30 other substances some of which are hallucinogenic. The drug is on the WHO official list.

dopamine

the decarboxylation product of DOPA. Formula: C8H11 O2 N.

Dopamine

A neurochemical made in the brain that is involved in many brain activities, including movement and emotion.

dopamine

a neurotransmitter, especially within the brain, in pathways related to the co-ordination of movement and to behaviour and emotion; deficiency of dopamine in the brain is associated with Parkinson's disease. Its secretion from the brain into the hypophysial portal blood vessels inhibits prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary. Also, in the adrenal medulla it is a precursor of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and is itself released as a neurohormone.

dopamine

central nervous system neurotransmitter, found especially in substantia nigra of basal ganglia (i.e. caudate and lentiform nuclei) essential for normal movement; loss of dopamine transmission within substantia nigra is characteristic of parkinsonism (see Table 1)
Table 1: Effects of stimulation of alpha, beta and dopamine receptors
ReceptorActionStimulating drug
Alpha-1 (α1); postsynapticVasoconstriction; positive inotropism; antidiuresisAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Alpha-2 (α2); presynapticVasodilatation; inhibition of noradrenaline releaseAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Dopamine +
Alpha-2 (α2); postsynapticConstriction of coronary arteries; promotion of salt and water excretionAdrenaline +
Noradrenaline +++
Dopamine +
Beta-1 (β1); postsynapticPositive inotropism; chronotropism; renin releaseAdrenaline ++
Noradrenaline ++
Isoprenaline ++
Dopamine +
Beta-2 (β2); presynapticNoradrenaline release accelerated; positive inotropism; chronotropismAdrenaline +
Isoprenaline +++
Beta-2 (β2); postsynapticVasodilatation; relaxation of bronchial smooth muscleAdrenaline +
Isoprenaline +++
Dopamine1; postsynapticVasodilatation; diuresisDopamine ++
Dopamine1; presynapticInhibits noradrenaline releaseDopamine +

Plus signs indicate degree of effect.

dopamine (dōˑ·p·mēn),

n a neurochemical that supports fine motor activity, blood pressure, focus, inspiration, intuition, enthusiasm, and joy, among other functions.

do·pa·mine

(dō'pă-mēn)
An intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine.

dopamine

(dō´pəmēn´),
n a sympathomimetic catecholamine used in the treatment of shock, hypotension, and low cardiac output.

dopamine

a compound, hydroxytyramine, produced by the decarboxylation of dopa; an intermediate product in the synthesis of norepinephrine. It is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; administered intravenously to correct hemodynamic imbalance in shock syndrome.

dopamine agonist
used to terminate pregnancy. See bromocriptine, cabergoline.
dopamine β-hydroxylase
enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine. A copper-containing mono-oxygenase requiring vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, acute treatment should consist of preferential blocking of postsynaptic NAc DA receptors (D1-D5), whereas long-term activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system should involve activation and/or release of DA at the NAc site.
Also, the antidepressive action may be dependent on the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems.
elegans can be exploited as a model to study obesity and neurodegeneration, with a particular focus on environmental toxins and their role within the dopaminergic system.
When there is a paucity of dopamine receptors, the person will be more prone to seek any substance or behavior that stimulates the dopaminergic system (a sort of "dopamine fix").
Fox Foundation Specification, Patterning and Maintenance of Midbrain Dopaminergic Systems in the Normal and Parkinsonian Brain initiative:
Some of the metabolic abnormalities observed in the brains of the abusers could be a result of effects on dopaminergic systems, considering many of the regions selected for comparison have dopaminergic innervation, the investigators hypothesized.
Heavy metals polluting the environment can cause subtle effects on children's renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, which reinforces the need to control and regulate potential sources of contamination by heavy metals.
The program titled, Specification, Patterning, and Maintenance of Midbrain Dopaminergic Systems In the Normal and Parkinsonian Brain is one element of the Foundation's aggressive research agenda aimed at finding a cure for Parkinson's disease.
On theoretical grounds, the effects of atypicals on the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems would suggest antidepressant activity for the class in general, he said.
1993); this contrasts with the increase in activity and dopaminergic systems associated with PD-like mechanisms.
The drug, which was formerly known as tomoxetine, is a highly selective presynaptic norepinephrine transporter blocker with no apparent effect on dopaminergic systems.