disulfiram


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disulfiram

 [di-sul´fĭ-ram]
Antabuse; a compound that, when used in the presence of alcohol, produces distressing symptoms such as severe nausea and vomiting. It is a dangerous drug, should always be given under the supervision of a physician and is never given to a patient who is in a state of intoxication or does not have full knowledge of its effects. Disulfiram inhibits the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced by the metabolism of alcohol; the resultant accumulation of acetaldehyde in the body is what causes nausea, vomiting, palpitation, dyspnea, and lowered blood pressure. Occasionally this may lead to profound collapse.

di·sul·fi·ram

(dī-sŭl'fi-ram),
An antioxidant that interferes with the normal metabolic degradation of alcohol in the body, resulting in increased acetaldehyde concentrations in blood and tissues. Used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism; when taken regularly in chronic alcoholism, it can lower the risk of relapse by inducing severe malaise and nausea if alcohol is consumed. Also used as a chelator in copper and nickel poisoning.

disulfiram

/di·sul·fi·ram/ (di-sul´fĭ-ram) an antioxidant that inhibits the oxidation of the acetaldehyde metabolized from alcohol, resulting in high concentrations of acetaldehyde in the body. Used to produce aversion to alcohol in the treatment of alcoholism because extremely uncomfortable symptoms occur when its administration is followed by ingestion of alcohol.

disulfiram

(dī-sŭl′fə-răm′)
n.
A drug used in the treatment of alcoholism that interferes with the metabolic degradation of alcohol, producing an unpleasant reaction when even a small quantity of alcohol is consumed.

disulfiram

[dīsul′firam]
an alcohol-use deterrent.
indications It is prescribed as a deterrent to drinking alcohol in the treatment of chronic alcoholism. It causes severe intestinal cramping, diaphoresis, and nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested. It requires that the patient explicitly know that, when combined with alcohol intake, death may occur.
contraindications Alcoholic intoxication; recent or concomitant administration of metronidazole, paraldehyde, or alcohol; severe myocardial disease; coronary occlusion; psychosis; or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects The most serious adverse reactions, which include optic neuritis, psychotic reaction, and polyneuritis, result from alcohol ingestion. Drowsiness, headache, and skin rash may occur. This drug interacts with several other drugs, such as metronidazole and warfarin.

disulfiram

Antabuse® An antioxidant that interferes with alcohol metabolism, resulting in ↑ acetaldehyde concentrations; it is effective in treating alcoholism as it produces aversive symptoms if combined with alcohol

di·sul·fi·ram

(dī-sŭl'fi-ram)
An antioxidant that interferes with the normal metabolic degradation of alcohol in the body, resulting in increased acetaldehyde concentrations in blood and tissues. Used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism; when taken regularly in chronic alcoholism, it can lower the risk of relapse by inducing severe malaise and nausea if alcohol is consumed. Also used as a chelator in copper and nickel poisoning.

disulfiram

A drug that interferes with the normal metabolism of alcohol so that a toxic substance, acetaldehyde, accumulates. This causes flushing, sweating, nausea, vomiting, faintness, headache, chest pain and sometimes convulsions and collapse. It is sometimes used to discourage drinking, but is not without danger. A brand name is Antabuse.

disulfiram

(dīsul´fəram´),
n brand name: Antabuse;
drug class: aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor;
action: blocks oxidation of alcohol at acetaldehyde stage;
uses: chronic alcoholism (as adjunct).
References in periodicals archive ?
The researchers hope their findings could be used to develop a new course of chemotherapy treatment by repurposing disulfiram.
Prolonged administration of disulfiram does not produce tolerance, but rather, leads to increased sensitivity to alcohol (the longer a patient is treated with disulfiram, the more sensitive they become to alcohol) (17).
Effects of disulfiram and dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout on cocaine-induced seizures.
Hence, conventional treatment with disulfiram or cyanamide does not favour understanding or awareness with regard to the underlying addictive disease, which tends to be persistent and can be reactivated by even just one drink, since the first glass can lead to uncontrolled drinking and relapse into heavy drinking, with all the associated negative consequences.
Figures 1 and 2 present maps showing the density of adopters from year to year for naltrexone and buprenorphine (the same maps for disulfiram are omitted due to space constraints but are available from the authors).
DER occurs in subjects maintained on disulfiram therapy, even if they consume a small amount of ethanol (as low as blood alcohol concentration of 5-10 mg/dL).
minax were shown to be inhibited by various xenobiotic compounds (ethacrynic acid, bromosulfalein, diethyl maleate, disulfiram, and curcumin), and these compounds all had greater inhibitory effects on GSTs purified from larvae, pupae and adults with [I.
Among four medications studied, use of Vivitrol was associated with fewer inpatient detox days than use of oral naltrexone, disulfiram (Antabuse), or acamprosate (Campral), and fewer alcoholism-related inpatient days than disulfiram or acamprosate.
To do this they are unravelling the unique anti-cancer properties of disulfiram, a drug previously used in alcohol aversion therapy, which they have discovered degrades EGF-R.
The pounds 2,000-per-head programme, run in the Latvian capital, Riga, gives participants three to four days of detoxification before they are given a surgical implant under the lower abdomen, which slowly releases the drug Disulfiram.
In addition to naltrexone (and an injectable, long-acting form of naltrexone) and acamprosate, disulfiram (Antabuse[R]) also is approved to treat alcohol dependence.
Disulfiram, which was approved for use in 1948, is a "deterrent" drug.