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Variables that we evaluated included disturbance regimes (frequency, extent, and intensity) and stand structure at the scales of stands and landscapes for high- and low-elevation forests.
The 20 LTER sites (Waide & Lugo, 1992) contain years, even decades, of successional studies in ecosystems over a large range of worldwide environmental gradients and disturbance regimes (Holdridge, 1947).
Increased shrubbiness will impact many aspects of northern parks including: caribou habitat, nutrient and permafrost dynamics, natural disturbance regimes, and plant community composition.
Because the result of the interaction of the biological details of the system and the varying levels of disturbance regimes in space and time is far from obvious, mechanistic models are needed in order to give us insight about the different outcomes and the more important parameters that control these processes.
These five chapters explicitly integrate human land uses (primarily agriculture, hunting, grazing, and forestry) with landscape processes and patterns, and focus on topics ranging from using management to mimic forest disturbance regimes, a "neuro-fuzzy" habitat model for exploring potential changes in agriculture on target species and challenges to conserving large mammal populations in an Ugandan park.
They recognize the interaction of global change and other sources of land use change which together add up to the probability of significant vegetation, hydrologic and other changes in coming decades, particularly at high latitudes and in terms of disturbance regimes.