Increasing the fuel mix for drying to 100 percent biomass using forest residuals to displace the 44 percent of energy provided by NG results in a 66 percent reduction in fossil fuel emissions, exceeding the EPA standard, and a C:C displacement ratio of 0.
Also the fossil carbon displacement ratio is much greater than 1.
However, if the mill residuals are used to produce electricity relying on 100 percent NG for mill drying, the fossil fuel emission reductions drop to only 17 percent, while the C:C displacement ratio declines to 0.
If pellets are used to displace the NG in mill drying instead of forest residuals, the reduction in fossil fuel emissions drops to 56 percent, a 15 percent decline, and the C:C displacement ratio declines to 0.
Considering only a cordwood alternative, much like the whole logs that made up a small part of the Wisconsin pellet furnish, resulted in a 74 percent reduction in emissions displacing NG and a C:C displacement ratio of 0.
If, however, the fuels used in producing the flooring are allocated to both flooring and the wood waste proportional to their mass, a frequently used allocation method for joint products, the fossil fuel emission reductions are cut almost in half, to 59 percent, and the C:C displacement ratio is reduced to 0.