calculus

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calculus

 [kal´ku-lus] (pl. cal´culi) (L.)
an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages. Called also stone. See also kidney stone and gallstone. adj., adj cal´culous.
biliary calculus gallstone.
bladder calculus vesical calculus.
bronchial calculus broncholith.
calcium oxalate calculus oxalate calculus.
dental calculus a hard, stonelike concretion, varying in color from creamy yellow to black, that forms on the teeth or dental prostheses through calcification of dental plaque; it begins as a yellowish film formed of calcium phosphate and carbonate, food particles, and other organic matter that is deposited on the teeth by the saliva. It should be removed regularly by a dentist or dental hygienist; if neglected, it can cause bacteria to lodge between the gums and the teeth, causing gum infection, dental caries, loosening of the teeth, and other disorders. Called also tartar.
gastric calculus gastrolith.
intestinal calculus enterolith.
lung calculus a hard mass or concretion formed in the bronchi around a small center of inorganic material, or from calcified portions of lung tissue or adjacent lymph nodes. Called also pneumolith.
mammary calculus a concretion in one of the lactiferous ducts.
nasal calculus rhinolith.
oxalate calculus a hard urinary calculus of calcium oxalate; some are covered with minute sharp spines that may abrade the renal pelvic epithelium, and others are smooth. Called also calcium oxalate calculus.
phosphate calculus a urinary calculus composed of a phosphate along with calcium oxalate and ammonium urate; it may be hard, soft, or friable, and so large that it may fill the renal pelvis and calices.
prostatic calculus a concretion formed in the prostate, chiefly of calcium carbonate and phosphate. Called also prostatolith.
renal calculus kidney stone.
staghorn calculus a urinary calculus, usually a phosphate calculus, found in the renal pelvis and shaped like the antlers of a stag because it extends into multiple calices.
urate calculus uric acid calculus.
urethral calculus a urinary calculus in the urethra; symptoms vary according to the patient's sex and the site of lodgment.
uric acid calculus a hard, yellow or reddish-yellow urinary calculus formed from uric acid.
urinary calculus a calculus in any part of the urinary tract; it is vesical when lodged in the bladder and renal (see kidney stone) when in the renal pelvis. Common types named for their primary components are oxalate calculi, phosphate calculi, and uric acid calculi. Called also urolith.
uterine calculus any kind of concretion in the uterus, such as a calcified myoma. Called also hysterolith and uterolith.
vesical calculus a urinary calculus in the urinary bladder. Called also bladder calculus.

cal·cu·lus

, gen. and pl.

cal·cu·li

(kal'kyū-lŭs, -lī),
A concretion formed in any part of the body, most commonly in the passages of the biliary and urinary tracts; usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids, or of other material such as cholesterol.
Synonym(s): stone (1)
[L. a pebble]

calculus

/cal·cu·lus/ (kal´ku-lus) pl. cal´culi   [L.] an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the animal body.cal´culous
biliary calculus  gallstone.
dental calculus  calcium phosphate and carbonate, with organic matter, deposited on tooth surfaces.
lung calculus  one formed in the bronchi by accretion about an inorganic nucleus, or from calcified portions of lung tissue or adjacent lymph nodes.
oxalate calculus  a urinary calculus made of calcium oxalate; some have tiny sharp spines and others are smooth.
renal calculus  one in the kidney.
salivary calculus 
struvite calculus  a urinary calculus of crystals of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate).
supragingival calculus  that covering the coronal surface of the tooth to the crest of the gingival margin.
urinary calculus  one in any part of the urinary tract.
uterine calculus  uterolith; a concretion in the uterus.
vesical calculus  one in the urinary bladder.

calculus

(kăl′kyə-ləs)
n. pl. calcu·li (-lī′) or calcu·luses
1. Medicine An abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder, for example.
2. Dentistry See tartar.

calculus

[kal′kyələs] pl. calculi
Etymology: L, little stone
1 also called stone. an abnormal stone formed in body tissues by an accumulation of mineral salts. Calculi are usually found in biliary and urinary tracts. Kinds of calculi include biliary calculus and renal calculus.
2 (in dentistry) also called tartar. A deposit of mineralized bacterial plaque biofilm, calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and organic matter that accumulates on the teeth or a dental prosthesis. Calculus that forms coronal to the gingival crest, called supragingival calculus, is chalky and cream-colored but may be stained by drinks such as tea or coffee, tobacco and food. Calculus that forms in the gingival pocket, or the periodontal pocket, called serumal calculus, subgingival calculus, or veneer, is usually denser and darker than supragingival calculus; slight deposits may be invisible until dried with air lending a chalky appearance. It harbors bacteria, thus contributing to periodontal disease.

calculus

Dentistry
Indurated, yellow-brown/black deposits on teeth formed by bacteria in dental plaques from mineralised calcium salts in saliva and subgingival transudates. 

Kidneys
A stone in the urinary tract.

Pathology
An abnormal, often calcium-rich mass found in various tissues, seen by light microscopy.

calculus

Plural, calculi Dentistry Tartar Indurated, yellow–brown/black deposits on teeth formed by bacteria in dental plaques from mineralized calcium salts in saliva and subgingival transudates Kidneys A stone in the urinary tract. See Mulberry calculus, Staghorn calculus.

cal·cu·lus

, pl. calculi (kal'kyū-lŭs, -lī)
A concretion formed in any part of the body, most commonly in the passages of the biliary and urinary tracts; usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids, or of other material such as cholesterol.
See also: dental calculus
Synonym(s): stone (1) .
[L. a pebble]

calculus

A stone of any kind formed abnormally in the body, mainly in the urinary system and the gall bladder. Calculi form in fluids in which high concentrations of chemical substances are dissolved. Their formation is encouraged by infection.

calculus (dental)

See DENTAL CALCULUS.

Calculus

Any type of hard concretion (stone) in the body, but usually found in the gallbladder, pancreas and kidneys. They are formed by the accumulation of excess mineral salts and other organic material such as blood or mucous. Calculi (pl.) can cause problems by lodging in and obstructing the proper flow of fluids, such as bile to the intestines or urine to the bladder.

calculus

the use of small changes to calculate derivatives of equations. Includes differentiation (calculation of gradients) and integration (calculation of areas). Invented in the 17th century by Newton and Leibnitz independently.

cal·cu·lus

, pl. calculi (kal'kyū-lŭs, -lī)
1. Synonym(s): dental calculus.
2. Concretion formed in any part of the body, most commonly in passages of biliary and urinary tracts; usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids, or of other material such as cholesterol.
Synonym(s): stone (1) .
[L. a pebble]

calculus (dental) (kal´kyələs),

n a hard deposit on the exposed surfaces of the teeth and any oral prosthesis within the oral cavity. It is composed of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium phosphate, and other elements within an organic matrix composed of plaque, desquamated epithelium, mucin, microorganisms, and other debris. Factor in the initiation and continuation of periodontal disease. The colloquial term is tartar.
Enlarge picture
Advanced calculus.
calculus, identification of, by air application,
n the use of compressed air to dry the periodontium and visualize minimal amounts of calculus, which are otherwise difficult to see, especially subgingivally.
calculus record,
n a written accounting of the number and distribution of calculus deposits on tooth surfaces that becomes part of the patient's permanent chart and is used to monitor progress and plan treatment.
calculus, subgingival,
n the calculus deposited on the tooth structure and found apical to the gingival margin within the periodontal pocket. Usually darker and denser than supragingival calculus. Older term is
serumal calculus.
calculus, supragingival,
n the calculus deposited on the teeth coronal to the gingival margin. Usually lighter in color (unless stained) and less dense than subgingival calculus. Older term is
salivary calculus.

calculus

pl. calculi [L.] an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the animal body, chiefly in the hollow organs or their passages. Called also stones, as in kidney stones (urolithiasis) and gallstones. See also hippomanes.

biliary calculus
a gallstone.
bronchial calculus
see bronchial calculus.
dental calculus
mineralized deposits of calcium phosphate and carbonate, with organic matter, deposited on tooth surfaces. Found commonly in dogs and cats, sometimes in horses, rarely in sheep. May initiate caries and peridontal disease.
lung calculus
a concretion formed in the bronchi. See also bronchial calculus.
pancreatic calculus
very small (4 to 5 mm) calculi in pancreatic ducts, rare and of no pathogenic importance.
prostatic calculus
concretions of calcium phosphates and carbonates in the prostatic ducts are rare and of no clinical significance.
renal calculus
salivary calculus
white, hard, laminated concretions in the salivary duct; a sialolith. Occurs most commonly in horses.
urethral calculus
a calculus lodged in the urethra causes obstruction of the urethra with a potential for causing rupture of the bladder or perforation of the urethra and leaking of urine into subcutaneous or retroperitoneal sites. See also urolith, urolithiasis.
urinary calculus
a calculus in any part of the urinary tract. See urolithiasis.
vesical calculus
a urolith in the urinary bladder.

Patient discussion about calculus

Q. Why do i get kidney stones? I am 38 and have had three stones pass so far. Is it the coffee, the meat, the stress, or the damned DNA?! My uncle is in his 50s and has passed over 30 stones!

A. Kidney stones are very common and even without the genetic or familial background people tend to get them. Of course, the more family predisposition you have, the higher are your chances of developing them, which is probably why you did. Also, a diet rich with dairy and calcium can cause your body to store excess calcium, that tends to calcify and create stones. Not drinking enough fluid is also one of the reasons.

Q. how do i cure tonsil stones (tonsiloth)?

A. There are very little literature about this subject, but I heard about treatment in which the crypts (deep and narrow grooves on the tongue in which the stones form) are burned with laser.

As far as I know these stones don't cause damage by themselves so it's not such a common treatment.

You may read more here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonsillolith

Q. Would kidney stones affect a PSA reading? Would drinking lots of grapefruit juice affect a PSA reading? My husband's PSA reading jumped from a 4.2 to a 17 in @ 2 years' time. How can that be? This man takes all sorts of supplements and really watches his diet. He also takes good care of his body, and does NOT look or act 68.

A. You should get your parathyroid gland checked out. Your calcium level might be causing the kidney stones.

More discussions about calculus
References in periodicals archive ?
Readers should have background in college mathematics, including differential and integral calculus, elementary matrix theory (but not linear algebra), and a course on elementary probability theory.
Engineers from India and the US compiled concept-oriented notes for systematic studies in differential and integral calculus for beginners.
Only one semester of differential and integral calculus is needed, and matrix algebra is not used.

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