x-ray

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x-ray

(eks'rā),
1. The ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from a highly evacuated tube, resulting from the excitation of the inner orbital electrons by the bombardment of the target anode with a stream of electrons from a heated cathode. Synonym(s): roentgen ray Compare: glass rays, indirect rays.
2. Ionizing electromagnetic radiation produced by the excitation of the inner orbital electrons of an atom by other processes, such as nuclear delay and its sequelae.
3. Synonym(s): radiograph

x-ray

(eks´ra) see under ray.

x-ray

or

X-ray

(ĕks′rā′)
n. or x ray or X ray
1.
a. A photon of electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength, ranging from about 10 down to 0.01 nanometers, and very high energy, ranging from about 100 up to 100,000 electron volts.
b. often x-rays or X-rays A narrow beam of such photons. X-rays are used for their penetrating power in radiography, radiology, radiotherapy, and scientific research. Also called roentgen ray.
2.
a. A photograph taken with x-rays.
b. The act or process of taking such a photograph: Did the patient move during the x-ray?
tr.v. x-rayed, x-raying, x-rays or X-rayed or X-raying or X-rays
1. To irradiate with x-rays.
2. To photograph with x-rays.

x-ray

1 Also called roentgen ray, x radiation, electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between about 0.005 and 10 nm. X-rays are produced when electrons traveling at high speed strike certain materials, particularly heavy metals such as tungsten. They can penetrate most substances and are used to investigate the integrity of certain structures, to therapeutically destroy diseased tissue, and to make radiographic images for diagnostic purposes, as in radiography and fluoroscopy. Discrete x-rays are those with precisely fixed energies that are characteristic of differences between electron binding energies of a particular element. Tungsten, for example, has 15 different effective energies and no more, representing emissions from 5 different electron shells.
2 a radiograph made by projecting x-rays through organs or structures of the body onto a photographic film. Structures that are relatively radiopaque (allow few x-rays to pass through), such as bones and cavities filled with a radiopaque contrast medium, cast a shadow on the film. Also called x-ray film.
3 to make a radiograph. See also contrast medium, electron, fluoroscopy, radiopaque.

X-ray

High-energy radiation A range of the electromagnetic spectrum used in low doses to diagnose disease and in high doses to treat CA. See Soft X-rays.
X-ray exposure
Diagnostic x-rays Impart 30-150 keV of energy; rare reports vaguely suggest a relationship between exposure to low- level X-rays and a slight ↑ in myeloproliferative disorders and a minimal ↑ risk for developing myeloma
Therapeutic x-rays
• Low level radiation, eg 5-10 keV or 'grenz' radiation–may be used to treat recalcitrant skin conditions–eg, psoriasis
• High level radiation, eg megaelectron-volt–MeV) radiation–may be used to treat internal malignancy

x-ray

()
1. The ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from a highly evacuated tube, resulting from the excitation of the inner orbital electrons by the bombardment of the target anode with a stream of electrons from a heated cathode.
2. Ionizing electromagnetic radiation produced by the excitation of the inner orbital electrons of an atom by other processes, such as nuclear delay and its sequelae.
3. A radiograph.
Synonym(s): roentgen ray.

X-ray

A form of electromagnetic radiation produced when a beam of high-speed electrons, accelerated by a high voltage, strikes a metal, such as copper or tungsten. X-radiation penetrates matter to a degree depending on the voltage used to produce it and the density of the matter. It acts on normal photographic film in much the same way as does visible light, but can also produce an image on a fluorescing screen. These properties make X-radiation valuable in medical diagnosis. X-rays are damaging to tissue, especially rapidly reproducing tissues, and can be used to treat various cancers (see RADIOTHERAPY).

X-ray

an ionizing radiation that is a powerful MUTAGEN with wavelengths between 10–1 and 10 nm on the ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. X-rays are produced by bombarding a metallic target with fast electrons in a vacuum, and are capable of penetrating various thicknesses of solids. Having passed through a solid they can act on a photographic plate producing a light/shade pattern indicative of the solid structure.

Roentgen,

Wilhelm K., German physicist and Nobel laureate, 1845-1923.
roentgen - the international unit of exposure dose for x-rays or gamma rays.
roentgen ray - Synonym(s): x-ray
roentgenograph - Synonym(s): radiograph

X-ray

electromagnetic radiation emitted from a vacuum tube when anode is bombarded with a stream of electrons from a heated cathode

x-ray

()
1. Ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from a highly evacuated tube, resulting from excitation of inner orbital electrons by bombardment of the target anode with a stream of electrons from a heated cathode.
2. Ionizing electromagnetic radiation produced by the excitation of the inner orbital electrons of an atom by other processes, such as nuclear delay and its sequelae.
3. Synonym(s): radiograph.

x-ray,

n a type of electromagnetic radiation characterized by wavelengths between approximately 103 Å and 10−4 Å, corresponding to photon energies of about 20 eV to 125 MeV. X-rays are invisible; penetrative, especially at higher photon energies; and travel with the same speed as visible light. Typical production involves bombarding a target of high atomic number with fast electrons in a high vacuum; they are also emitted as a product of some radioactive disintegrations (specifically originating from the extranuclear part of the atom). X-rays were first discovered by Wilhelm C. Roentgen in 1895; hence the term
roentgen rays, often applied to mechanically generated radiographs. Roentgen called them
x-rays after the mathematic symbol
x for an unknown. Also the colloquial term for radiograph. See also radiograph.
Enlarge picture
Xerostomia.
radiograph, low-voltage filament circuit,
n the lower-energy circuit in a radiography machine that uses a step-down transformer to lower the line voltage to around 3 volts, just enough to heat the filament and produce an electron cloud.
radiograph, monochromatic,
n a radiograph that has a single wavelength or an extremely narrow band of wavelengths.

x-ray

electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths ranging between 5.0 × 10−6 and 5.0 × 10−4 μm (including grenz rays).
X-rays are produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube. Called also roentgen rays. The penetrability and hardness of the x-rays increases with the voltage applied to the x-ray tube, which controls the speed with which the electrons strike the target. For diagnostic radiography, tube voltages in the range 50 to 120 kilovolts peak (kVp) are normally used. For radiation therapy, voltages in the 1 to 2 megavolt range are used for most treatment. Accelerating electrons to speeds high enough to produce megavoltage x-rays requires a linear accelerator (lineac).
The x-ray exposure is proportional to the tube current (milliamperage) and also to the exposure time. In diagnostic radiography, the tube voltage and current and exposure time are selected to produce a high-quality radiograph with the correct contrast and film density. In radiation therapy, these exposure factors are selected to deliver a precisely calculated radiation dose to the tumor. The total dose is usually fractionated so that tumor cells can be oxygenated as surrounding cells die; this increases the sensitivity of the cells to radiation.
Body tissues and other substances are classified according to the degree to which they allow the passage of x-rays (radiolucency) or absorb x-rays (radiopacity). Gases are very radiolucent; fatty tissue is moderately radiolucent. Compounds containing high-atomic-weight elements, such as barium and iodine, are very radiopaque; bone and deposits of calcium salts are moderately radiopaque. Water; muscle, skin, blood and cartilage and other connective tissue; and cholesterol and uric acid stones have intermediate density. See also radiation and radiation therapy.
A double contrast study uses both a radiopaque and a radiolucent contrast medium; for example, the walls of the stomach or intestine are coated with barium and the lumen is filled with air. The resulting radiographs clearly show the pattern of mucosal ridges.

x-ray tube
a glass vessel with a high vacuum and two electrodes. A very high voltage electrical current is passed across the tube and drives a stream of electrons produced by a tungsten filament set in the face of the cathode to collide with the anode and generate x-rays.
References in periodicals archive ?
Participants in fee-for-service plans are provided with the most variations in coverage of outpatient diagnostic x-ray and laboratory tests.
Full-time participants in fee-for-service plans with internal limits for diagnostic x-ray and laboratory testing benefits, medium and large private establishments, 1991 Percent of Type of limitation(1) participants Total(2) 100 Deductible(3) 1 Maximum dollar amount 99 Per year 86 Per illness 6 Scheduled 8 Shared (4) Coinsurance 1 (1) Includes PPO plans.
For diagnostic x-ray and laboratory testing, such incentives generally take the form of a decreased or eliminated deductible or an increase in the percent of charges paid by the plan.
The method of providing coverage for outpatient diagnostic x-ray and laboratory testing in employer-provided health care plans has changed considerably over the past decade.
The 16 percent of workers without first-dollar coverage in 1981 were required to pay a deductible before receiving diagnostic x-ray and laboratory benefits, and then they shared the remaining costs with the plan.
CT scans expose a person to more radiation than a diagnostic x-ray.
These people experienced doses in the range of 5-100 mSv, which is equivalent to multiple diagnostic x-rays.
The court noted that the prisoner refused to allow prison dentists, who were willing and able to fill the prisoner's cavities, to take necessary diagnostic x-rays, and that braces were not indicated for a woman who was nearly 50 years old.