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The intensification of teachers working conditions includes deskilling (bureaucratic control incorporated into teachers' day-to-day practices) and deprofessionalisation (teachers activities are reduced to the execution of decisions made by others) (Apple 1986; Apple y Jungck, 1996).
Such levels of accountability are associated with a neoliberal emphasis on performativity and deprofessionalisation of academics (Olsson & Peters, 2005).
The authors attribute a number of key factors to this current tension within higher education, including: (1) the deprofessionalisation and casualisation of academic staff; (2) the digitisation of curriculum, pedagogy and research practices; (3) the commercialisation of research grants and funding; (4) the instrumentalisation of universities to serve the labour market; and (5) massification and the rise of virtual learning environments (VLEs) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) (pp.
Early-career academics can no longer rely on regular hours of teaching across the academic year, as an even cheaper layer of teaching staff--graduate teaching assistants--has been introduced to replace hourly-paid contracts/associate lectureships in an endless cycle of deprofessionalisation and cost cutting.
Profession in Transition--on the deprofessionalisation of journalism].
Researchers have analysed the effects of a managerialist-market logic on the relationship between care organisations and their key stakeholders--care recipients, care workers and unpaid carers (King 2007)--and reviewed the conditions of the paid care workforce in community services in Australia, revealing deinstitutionalisation, deprofessionalisation, functional underemployment, and relatively poor pay (Meagher 2007).
Taken together these trends have reduced the discretion of social professionals, leading to concerns about deprofessionalisation.
As long ago as 1973, Haug's deprofessionalisation hypothesis painted a bleak picture of the new era of knowledge workers and their talents in the relentless drive towards competitive advantage (also see Holmes, 2008), in which process controls and performance measures will ultimately win out over more subjective notions of "doing a good job" (see Cunningham, 2008).
Finding such a balance whilst caught up in orthodoxies of balkanised curriculum organization, the deprofessionalisation of teaching, and the increasing use of testing of a few valorised subjects is nigh impossible.
Clearly, teaching students about the distinctive characteristics of the profession they aspire to is vital for professional socialisation, but all too often this has led to protectionism and negative concerns of horizontal and vertical encroachment, deprofessionalisation and the emergence of what Donald Light called 'countervailing powers' (Dent, 2003; Light, 1993; Lupton, 1995).
I fully subscribe in the same way to Bob's critical reflections on a concept like "professional learning community," a concept that is very appealing at first sight, but that may serve very different agendas, some of them only contributing to teachers' deprofessionalisation (Kelchtermans, 2006, 2007b).
CBR has earlier been described as a de-mystification of rehabilitation but can also be characterised by deprofessionalisation.
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