prednisolone

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prednisolone

 [pred-nis´o-lōn]
a synthetic glucocorticoid used in the form of the base or the acetate, sodium phosphate, or tebutate ester in replacement therapy for adrenocortical insufficiency, as an antiinflammatory agent, and as an immunosuppressant.

pred·nis·o·lone

(pred-nis'ō-lōn),
A dehydrogenated analogue of cortisol with the same actions and uses as cortisol; a potent glucocorticoid; available as several salts.

prednisolone

/pred·nis·o·lone/ (pred-nis´ah-lōn) a synthetic glucocorticoid derived from cortisol, used in the form of the base or the acetate, sodium phosphate, or tebutate ester in replacement therapy for adrenocortical insufficiency, as an antiinflammatory, and as an immunosuppressant.

prednisolone

(prĕd-nĭs′ə-lōn′)
n.
A synthetic corticosteroid, C21H28O5, derived from cortisol and used as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antiallergic drug.

prednisoLONE

[prednis′əlōn]
a glucocorticoid.
indications It is prescribed as treatment for inflammation of the skin, conjunctiva, and cornea and for immunosuppression.
contraindications Fungal infections or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its systemic use. Viral or fungal infections of the skin, impaired circulation, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its topical use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects to the systemic administration of this drug are GI, endocrine, neurological, fluid, and electrolyte disturbances. Skin reactions may result from topical administration of this drug.

pred·nis·o·lone

(pred-nis'ŏ-lōn)
A dehydrogenated analogue of cortisol with the same actions and uses as cortisol; a potent glucocorticoid; available as several salts.

prednisolone

A semisynthetic corticosteroid drug derived from the natural steroid hormone cortisol and used in the treatment of a wide range of inflammatory disorders. Prednisolone may be given by mouth or injection, but many preparations are formulated for application to the skin or the eyes or ears and the drug may also be given as an enema. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Deltacortril, Deltastab, Minims prednisolone, Precortisyl Forte, Pred Forte, Predenema, Predfoam, Prednesol, and Predsol.

glucocorticoids

the group of corticosteroid hormones (mainly cortisol syn hydrocortisone, of which cortisone is the precursor) produced by the adrenal cortex, under the control of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. Their major actions on nutrient metabolism have the net effect of promoting glucose and free fatty acid availability as fuels. Also vital for normal cellular processes as diverse, for example, as excitation-contraction coupling and the health of connective tissues. Synthetic steroids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone have similar actions and are used in the treatment of, for example, asthma and rheumatic conditions. Banned in sport due to their powerful anti-inflammatory action and effect of producing euphoria and masking pain. (Not to be confused with anabolic steroids). See also adrenal glands, hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

prednisolone

analogue of cortisol; corticosteroid agent used to control autoimmune inflammation

pred·nis·o·lone

(pred-nis'ŏ-lōn)
A dehydrogenated analogue of cortisol with the same actions and uses.

prednisolone

a glucocorticoid; an analog of hydrocortisone with 3-5 times the potency. Used as the crystalline form for oral administration, as the acetate or butylacetate for soft tissue injection or the sodium phosphate or sodium succinate for intravenous administration.