multiple birth

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birth

 [berth]
a coming into being; the act or process of being born.
birth certificate a written, authenticated record of the birth of a child, required by state laws throughout the United States. After a birth is registered, a birth certificate is issued which represents legal proof of parentage, age, and citizenship, and is of great personal and legal importance. A birth certificate is required for many legal and business or personal transactions. Whether the child is born at home or at the hospital, the physician, midwife, or other attendant must report the birth to the local or state registrar. The report becomes a permanent record, and a certificate is issued to the parents. If a child dies during birth, an immediate report and certification of the birth and death are required, containing a statement of the cause of death.
birth control the concept of limiting the size of families by measures designed to prevent conception. The movement of that name began in modern times as a humanitarian reform to conserve the health of mothers and the welfare of children, especially among the poor. More recently it has been superseded by the term family planning, which means planning the arrival of children to correspond with the desire and resources of the married couple. See also contraception.
multiple birth the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period.
premature birth (preterm birth) expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before termination of the normal gestation period, but after independent existence has become possible; defined as birth occurring before 37 completed weeks (295 days), counting from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. Approximately 6 to 8 per cent of all live births in the United States are premature, and premature births are the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality.

multiple birth

A pregnancy resulting in the birth of two or more infants.

multiple birth

Reproduction medicine A pregnancy resulting in birth of ≥ 2 infants. See Clomifen, Higher multiple.

birth

a coming into being; the act or process of being born. See also parturition.

birth canal
the canal through which the fetus passes in birth; comprising the uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva.
birth cohort
see cohort.
birth control
a term rarely used in dealing with animals. Instead see population control, contraception.
birth defects
see congenital defects.
birth difficulties
dystocia.
birth injury
occurs to the fetus during birth. Includes rib fracture and meningeal hemorrhage.
birth interval
the interval between succeeding parturitions. See also calving interval.
multiple birth
the birth of two or more offspring produced in the same gestation period.
birth order
the chronological order of births in a multiple birth. May have significance in causing stillbirths if the intervals between births are prolonged because of inertia.
premature birth
expulsion of the fetus from the uterus before termination of the normal gestation period, but after independent existence has become a possibility. In humans prematurity is defined as a pregnancy of less than 37 weeks in a pregnancy normally lasting 40 weeks.
birth process
comprises maturation of the fetus, relaxation of the bony pelvis and associated ligaments, softening and relaxation of the cervix, vagina, vulva and perineum, correct disposition of the fetus, contractions of the uterine myometrium and finally the only component under voluntary control, contraction of the abdominal muscles.
birth rate
the number of births during one year for the total population (crude birth rate), for the female population (refined birth rate), or for the female population of reproductive age (true birth rate). Not a term much used with reference to animals. See calving, lambing rate.
birth size
stature, including height at withers, crown to tail head length at birth.
birth weight
the weight at birth. A significant determinant of survival in any species and of the occurrence of dystocia. See also prolonged gestation.

multiple

manifold; occurring in various parts of the body at once.

multiple alleles
see allele.
multiple birth
more than one offspring in a gestation and parturition.
multiple causation
a disease in which a combination, or alternative combinations, of causes, are required to produce it. Called also multifactorial etiology.
multiple-crush
surgical instruments, e.g. heavy duty emasculators, ecraseurs in which each jaw has more than one crushing surface, mounted one behind the other, each successive surface coming into contact with its counterpart as increasing pressure is applied to the handles of the instrument.
multiple endochondromas
multiple fission
a method of reproduction in protozoa. See schizogony.
multiple infection
simultaneous infection with more than one virus or a combination of virus and bacteria may be caused by one agent lowering resistance to the other. There may be synergism between the agents.
multiple least squares regression
the major method of analysis used to sort through a large number of potential risk factors permitting the examination of one factor while the other factors in the regression equation are held mathematically constant.
multiple limb defects
patients with more than one congenital limb defect.
multiple myeloma
see multiple myeloma.
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
in critical care medicine, a state in which intervention is required to maintain homeostasis. Called also MODS.
multiple ovulation
an important feature in the technique of embryo transfer. See superovulation.
multiple pregnancies
twins, triplets and more in usually uniparous species.
multiple regression
an analytical method which determines the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.
multiple risk
situations in which more than one risk factor for a disease is present and their combined presence contributes to an increased risk.
multiple suckling
when a cow accepts more calves to suckle than her own; a system for foster-rearing of orphan or purchased calves.