date rape

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rape

 [rāp]
sexual assault or abuse; sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal penetration) against the will and without the consent of the individual. The crime of rape continues to occur at an alarming rate. Many cases are not reported by victims because of feelings of shame, guilt, embarrassment, or fear. Most rape victims are girls or women, although rape or sexual assault can also occur between men (homosexual rape). 

Immediately after the crime of rape has occurred, victims should be calmed as much as possible and assured that they are safe. Any bleeding wounds, fractures, or other existing injuries should be treated. They should be encouraged to obtain treatment as soon as possible and not to change clothes, bathe, douche, or urinate because that could destroy legal evidence needed to arrest and convict the attacker.

Rape is a physical and psychological emergency, and the victim must be treated with compassion as well as professional competence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has provided guidelines for the physical care of a rape victim, identifying a twofold purpose for the physical examination: (1) to protect the victim against disease, pregnancy, and psychological trauma, and (2) to aid in the collection of legal evidence that could be used later in court.

Many hospitals have on call a rape counselor who can stay with the victim through emergency treatment and provide guidance and referral to a follow-up program of care. Recovery from rape is a difficult task. Some victims may appear to return to normal rather quickly, when in fact they are using temporary psychological mechanisms such as denial, suppression, and rationalization. Crisis intervention through all phases of the recovery period is a necessary component of the total care of a rape victim. The main purposes of follow-up are to keep channels of communication open to victims, assess their coping skills, to offer support and encouragement in efforts to resume life, and to provide assistance and referral if necessary. Rape is a crime of violence in which the sexual act is secondary to the brutality of the attack.

The American College of Emergency Physicians has published a consensus document called Evaluation and Management of the Sexually Assaulted or Abused Patient. It is available from ACEP Sales and Service, P.O. Box 619911, Dallas TX 75261-9911 or on their web site at http://www.acep.org. They can also be reached by telephone at 1-800-798-1822, ext. 6. A review of informative materials for women who have been raped or sexually assaulted, and practice guidelines for care, is available from the National Violence Against Women Prevention Research Center, whose web site is http://www.vawprevention.org.
acquaintance rape (date rape) rape by someone known to the victim.
rape-trauma syndrome
1. a group of symptoms caused by, or that are responses to, rape.
2. a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a sustained maladaptative response to a forced, violent sexual penetration against the victim's will and consent. It includes an acute phase of disorganization of the victim's lifestyle, followed by a long-term phase of reorganization of lifestyle. Characteristics in the acute phase may include emotional reactions such as anger, humiliation, revenge, and self-blame, and multiple physical symptoms. In the long-term phase the victim must cope with changes in lifestyle that could include moving to another residence, changing telephone number, dealing with recurrent nightmares and phobias, and seeking support from individuals and groups.



There may also be either a compound reaction or a silent reaction. The nursing diagnosis rape trauma syndrome: compound reaction is identified as an acute stress reaction to a rape or attempted rape, experienced along with other major stressors that can include reactivation of symptoms of a previous condition. The victim suffers from the emotional and physiological manifestations listed above and may also resort to reliance on drugs or alcohol and experience reactivated symptoms of preexisting physical or psychiatric illnesses. The nursing diagnosis rape trauma syndrome: silent reaction is identified as a complex stress reaction to a rape in which an individual is unable to describe or discuss the rape. Characteristics can include sudden changes in relationships with men and in sexual behavior, increasing anxiety during interview, silence about the rape incident, and sudden onset of phobic reactions.
A type of rape, an event that affects 20% of adolescent girls, peaking at age 16–19. Date rape is the end-point of sexual play in which the woman may have initially been an active participant, but which advances to forced nonconsensual coitus

date rape

Nonconsensual, unsolicited, and unwelcome sexual relations between individuals who are currently or were previously romantically involved or sexually intimate.
See also: rape
References in periodicals archive ?
Dr Caryl Beynon, lead author of the report, said: "Public concern about the use of illegal drugs in sexual assaults can take the focus away from the most commonly used date-rape drug, alcohol.
Now the Forensic Science Service has shown that the use of date-rape drugs is not only very rare but is, as I suggested, quite unnecessary.
Cigarettes dipped in embalming fluid first appeared as a new date-rape risk in North Carolina, America, at the end of the 1990s.
Her sister Sandra Hitchmough, of The Fairway, West Derby, asked if the fact she might have had the date-rape drug, rohypnol, did not raise suspicion.
Andrew Luster, 39, the great-grandson of Max Factor, was told to pay compensation to the 23-year-old Californian woman he doped with the date-rape GHB in 1997 before filming the rape.
Date-rape campaigners warned yesterday that spiked cigarettes could be used to lure victims into drinking drugged alcohol.
21 of 86 counts of drugging three women with the date-rape drug GHB inside his Mussel Shoals home.
And he blamed the despicable toll on date-rape drugs becoming more readily available.
She says the date-rape in a hotel room in 1988 had left her feeling fearful of sex.
STUDENTS in Liverpool were last night being taught how easy it is to fall victim to date-rape drugs.
Leisure group Luminar has stumped up cash to produce the swizzle sticks, which change colour if the drink has been spiked with date-rape drugs Rohypnol or gamma hydroxybutric acid, known as GHB.
BRITAIN'S 60,000 publicans have been warned to be on the alert for date-rape drugs.