DNA replication


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DNA replication

The formation of new and, hopefully, identical copies of complete genomes. DNA replication occurs every time a cell divides to form two daughter cells. Under the influence of enzymes, DNA unwinds and the two strands separate over short lengths to form numerous replication forks, each of which is called a replicon. The separated strands are temporarily sealed with protein to prevent re-attachment. A short RNA sequence called a primer is formed for each strand at the fork. These primers provide a free 3'-OH end on which the new complementary sequence can be formed along the strand. The LEADING STRAND is synthesized continuously in the 5’ to 3’ direction, working towards the fork direction with removal of the RNA primers as the parental duplex is unwound. The LAGGING STRAND is synthesized discontinuously in the opposite direction as short fragments called Okazaki fragments. Lagging strand synthesis requires extension of the primer, then removal of the primers and gap filling. At least 20 different enzymes and factors, including DNA helicases, DNA polymerases, RNA primases, DNA TOPOISOMERASES and DNA ligases are involved in the complex process of DNA replication.

DNA replication

see DNA.
References in periodicals archive ?
During their cycle, Cells must undergo faithful dna replication to ensure that an exact copy of their genetic content is passed on to their daughters.
Among their topics are methane seeps in a changing climate, the shallow submarine hot vent system off the Greek island of Milos as a natural laboratory for studying hydrothermal geomicrobiology, life in serpentinite hosted alkaline springs, microbial nitrogen processes at submarine hydrothermal vents, and multiplication is vexation: a genomic perspective on cell division and DNA replication in the large sulfur bacteria.
As cells create duplicate copies of their genetic material, a lesion or other obstacle can block DNA replication, potentially derailing a cell's ability to reproduce.
The company is also advancing SRA141, a potent, selective, orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of Cell division cycle 7 (Cdc7 ) kinase, a key regulator of DNA replication involved in the DDR network, making it a compelling emerging target for the potential treatment of a broad range of tumor types.
The primary functions of chromatin are: package DNA into a more compact, denser shape: reinforce the DNA macromolecule to allow mitosis: prevent DNA damage; and control gene expression and DNA replication.
Although scientists have thought DNA replication was a more coordinated process, one that was organized so as to prevent it from becoming damaged or mutating, watching DNA copy itself in real time has given them a new take on a mechanism that is crucial to life on this planet.
The mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) occurs when the proteins that repair mismatch errors in DNA replication are missing or non-functional, which leads to microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) tumors in some cancers, including CRC.
Nucleic acids 2017 is going to provide a leading platform to discuss about the recent researches in the field of nucleic acids and Molecular Biology such as DNA Replication This event will provide platform for business delegates, B2B meetings, poster presentations, workshops, symposia, networking and more.
Zika infection interferes with DNA replication and repair machinery and also prevents production of some proteins needed for proper brain growth, geneticist Feiran Zhang of Emory University in Atlanta reported October 19.
TEHRAN (FNA)- By looking into the mechanism of a backward enzyme, scientists speculate why DNA replication always happens in the forward direction.
This mechanism, mismatch repair, reduces the error frequency during DNA replication by about a thousandfold, according to the statement.
INTEGRATION OF DNA REPLICATION, CHROMATIN MODIFICATION, AND DEVELOPMENT DURING DROSOPHILA OOGENESIS KRISTOPHER H.