DNA library


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DNA library

a collection of DNA fragments of one organism, each carried by a plasmid or virus and cloned in an appropriate host. A DNA probe is used to locate a specific DNA sequence in the library. A collection representing the entire genome is called a genomic library. An assortment of DNA copies of messenger RNA produced by a cell is known as a complimentary DNA (cDNA) library. Also called gene library. See also DNA probe.

DNA library

A collection of cloned DNA fragments that can be used as probes.

DNA


DNA binding proteins
are of two general types, histone proteins which are part of the unit structure of chromosomes called nucleosomes and nonhistone proteins which are present in small amounts and include regulatory proteins.
chromosomal DNA
circular DNA
a DNA molecule that is a closed-ring structure, found in mitochondria, prokaryote chromosomes, plasmids, and certain viruses.
closed DNA complexes
the first of two kinetically distinct steps required for RNA polymerase to initiate transcription in which the RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds electrostatically to the promoter DNA.
DNA construct
a DNA molecule which has been inserted into a cloning vector.
copy DNA
a DNA copy of mRNA which contains only regulatory and coding sequences, i.e. introns have been removed. mRNA is copied into double-stranded DNA using reverse transcriptase; the cDNA can then be cloned and amplified and introduced into an expression vector (plasmid or phage) and its protein product produced in either bacterial, yeast, insect or mammalian cells. Called also cDNA.
DNA deletion
DNA double helix
see double helix.
duplex DNA
double-stranded DNA.
end labeling DNA
methods for labeling DNA with radioisotopes or other detectable marker molecules at the ends using the terminal transferase 3′-labeling or polynucleotide kinase for 5′-labeling.
episomal DNA
that present in a cell as extra chromosomal; exemplified by plasmids of prokaryotic cells. See plasmid.
eukaryotic DNA
exogenous DNA
the DNA that has been introduced into a host by cloning.
DNA glycosylases
enzymes involved in the excision-repair mechanisms for DNA.
heteroduplex DNA
duplex DNA with each strand from a different origin.
DNA gyrase
see gyrase.
DNA library
a collection of cloned DNA molecules from a genome.
DNA ligase
an enzyme that seals nicks in the DNA helix, joins Okazaki fragments together during DNA replication and is essential in recombinant DNA technology for DNA cloning.
DNA microarray
an ordered set of thousands of different oligonucleotides immobilized on a microscope slide or other solid surface used for the detection of cognate nucleotide sequences such as the pattern of gene expression in a particular cell population by hybridization with fluorescently labeled cDNA prepared from total mRNA isolated from the cells.
mobile DNA
a sequence present in the variable locations on the chromosome. Called also jumping genes. See also retrotransposon and transposable genetic elements.
open DNA complex
a local opening of about 10 base pairs formed at the transcription initiation site following the electrostatic binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme to the promoter region.
DNA polymerase
of Escherichia coli; has three distinct enzymatic activities: (a) a 5′ to 3′ polymerase activity which, under the direction of a template DNA, catalyzes the addition of mononucleotide units, produced from deoxynucleoside 5′-triphosphates, to the 3′-hydroxyl terminus of a primer chain; (b) a 5′ to 3′ exonuclease active only on duplex DNA; (c) a 3′ to 5′ exonuclease primarily active on single-stranded DNA which can selectively remove mismatched terminal nucleotides, thus carrying out a proofreading function. Additionally it catalyzes both the pyrophosphorolysis of DNA, a reaction which is the reverse of polymerization, and pyrophosphate exchange which represents a repetitive sequence of nucleotide addition and pyrophosphorolysis.
DNA probe
see probe (2).
DNA repair
a series of enzymatic mechanisms whereby errors or damage to one of the two DNA strands are removed by excision and replaced by correct nucleotides using the undamaged strand as template. The mechanisms include removal of lesions of depurination and DNA glycosylases which recognize altered bases.
repeat DNA, repetitive DNA
includes (a) satellite DNA and so-called (b) interspersed repeated DNA sequences. The latter are interspread throughout the chromosomes in hundreds of thousands of individual copies, each about 300 nucleotides long; they are, unlike satellite DNA, transcribed.
satellite DNA
serially repeated DNA sequences of one or a few nucleotides with a repeat length of up to 250 nucleotides that are not transcribed and commonly located in the heterochromatin associated with the centrometric regions of chromosomes.
selfish DNA
a mobile DNA element that appears to have no function except to replicate itself. Part of junk DNA.
DNA sequencing
determining the order of nucleotides in DNA from which amino acid in a polypeptide chain can be predicted.
single-copy DNA
the fraction of DNA that contains most of the protein-coding genes and reassociates most slowly.
single-stranded DNA
produced when double-stranded DNA is denatured or found naturally in some viruses.
spacer DNA
single-copy DNA sequences which do not encode proteins or functional RNA molecules.
supercoiled DNA
the double helix is itself twisted.
superhelical DNA
a twisted structure formed by circular DNA molecules. See also supercoiled DNA (above).
DNA transcription
DNA translation
unique DNA
DNA sequences that occur only once in the haploid genome.
DNA viruses
contain a single molecule of DNA that is either double or single stranded. Parvoviruses and circoviruses are single stranded, hepadnaviruses are partially double stranded and all others are double stranded. DNA virus families are: Poxviridae, Asfarviridae,Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, and Hepadnaviridae.
Z-DNA
an alternative structural form of DNA which differs from the more commonly occurring B- and related A-form in that the helix is left handed compared with the right hand helixes of B- and A-forms. Z is for zig-zag. The functional significance of Z-DNA is unknown.
References in periodicals archive ?
For more details about the NEBNext Ultra II DNA Library Prep Kit, visitNEBNextUltraII.
For DNA library construction, we used the Paired-End DNA Sample Preparation Kit (Illumina) and 5-30 ng plasma DNA for each case.
For all 12 cases in this study, we incubated 500 ng of the amplified plasma DNA library with the capture probes for 24 h at 65 [degrees]C, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Sales of DNA Library Prep Kits Rose 28% Last Year and Achieved 2-Year CAGR of 45% as New Products Gained Traction and Expanded Distribution Fueled Overseas Growth--
Rubicon's DNA library preparation products for arrays and Illumina[sup.
The FITC-labeled DNA library was measured as the background binding, and a threshold was determined based on the background fluorescence.
a) sgc8 sgc3 sgc4 sgd2 sgd3 sgd5 T ALL 1 ++ +++ +++ +++ +++ ND T ALL 2 ++ + +++ ++ + 0 T ALL 3 + + ++++ +++ + 0 T ALL 4 + + ++ +++ + 0 T ALL 5 + + ++ + + 0 T ALL 6 0 0 + + 0 0 T ALL 7 0 0 ++ ++ 0 0 TALL 8 + + ++ ++ + 0 TALL 9 + 0 + + 0 0 TALL10 0 + + 0 + 0 B ALL 1 0 0 ++ ++ 0 0 B ALL 2 0 0 ++ ++ 0 + B ALL 3 ++ 0 ++ ++ 0 + B-ALL 4 0 0 + + 0 0 AML 1 + + ++ + 0 0 AML 2 + 0 ++ + 0 0 AML 3 + 0 + + 0 0 AML 4 0 0 ++++ ++++ 0 0 AML 5 0 0 + 0 0 0 AML 6 + 0 0 0 0 0 AML 7 + 0 0 0 0 0 AML 8 + 0 +++ +++ 0 0 (a) In the flow cytometry analysis, a threshold based on fluorescence intensity of FITC was chosen so that 99% percent of cells incubated with the FITC-labeled unselected DNA library would have fluorescence intensity below it.
More recently, FACS has been applied not only to genomic science research Co specific chromosomes have been separated from cells to allow the construction of a DNA library from each chromosome Co but also to proteomic analysis of specific cells, thereby underpinning the continuous progress of post-genomic research.
In addition, these kits must also perform ligation of specific adaptors and indexes so that the DNA library produced is capable of multiplexing a minimum of 96 samples and is compatible with the downstream sequencing protocol on the MiSeq.
Sales of Rubicon Genomics' DNA Library Prep Kit Products Increase over 50% as Expansion of Distribution Channels Continues--
today announced that it has signed agreements with new distributors in Europe, North Africa and Asia to further expand the availability of its DNA library preparation products for arrays and Illumina[sup.
More recently, FACS has been applied to not only genomic science research -- specific chromosomes have been separated from cells to allow the construction of a DNA library from each chromosome -- but also to proteomic analysis of specific cells, thereby underpinning the continuous progress of post-genomic research.