DNA ladder


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DNA ladder

A solution of double-stranded DNA fragments whose molecule weights (and number of base pairs) are known and standardized. The ladder is used to calibrate electrophoresis gels so that samples of unknown DNA that have been introduced into the gel can be measured.
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The PCR products were checked on 2% agarose gel by doing electrophoresis for 90 min at 105 volts along with DNA ladder (100bp).
After staining, the bands were visualised under ultraviolet (UV) light and different mutations were analysed with the sizes of PCR-amplified product and estimated according to the migration pattern of a 100-bp DNA ladder mutations of superoxide dismutase gene.
DNA ladder of 100 bp (Norgen, Canda) was used to determine the size of the amplified bands.
Caption: Figure 1: Agarose gel image showing nucleotide polymorphism by PCR-RFLP of (A) hOGG1 codon326 in the exon-7 (Lane 1: 100bp DNA ladder, lane 2: Uncut PCR product, lane 3: Ser/Ser genotype lane 4: Ser/Cys genotype, lane 5: Cys/Cys genotype and) and (B) APE1 codon 148 in the exon-5.
The sizes of PCR products were estimated according to the migration pattern of a 100-bp DNA ladder (Fermentas Technologies USA).
5 X TBE buffer and visualized by ethidium bromide staining under UV illumination (UVP model M20); their sizes were estimated by comparison with O Gene Ruler 1kb Plus DNA ladder (Fermentas).
A DNA ladder was formed at 48 h, indicating DNA fragmentation in the final phase of apoptosis.
The amplification product which included the 16S rRNA gene region plus the flanking regions when subjected to electrophoresis against 1 kb DNA ladder appeared to be around 1861 bp which was confirmed by sequencing.
The fragment sizes were detected by comparing the amplicons with a 100 bp DNA Ladder.