Instead, in vivo DNA replication methods for most organisms rely on a class of enzymes known as DNA helicases
, which act to locally unwind dsDNA to create small ssDNA regions suitable for polymerase activity.
Disease variants of the human mitochondrial DNA helicase
encoded by C10orf2 differentially alter protein stability, nucleotide hydrolysis and helicase activity.
Mutations in any one of these genes, such as in the DNA helicase
gene associated with Werner's syndrome, may trigger major portions of the aging phenotype.
These patients are homozygous for the BLM gene on the long arm of chromosome 15, which has also been recently shown to encode a DNA helicase
In both cases, fluoroquinolones appear to trap the enzyme on DNA during the topoisomerization reaction, forming a physical barrier to the movement of the replication fork (4), RNA polymerase (5), and DNA helicase
It is caused by null mutations at WRN locus, which codes for a member of RecQ family of DNA helicases
Other topics include mediation and modulation of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions, metal binding affinity and selectivity in metalloproteins, translocation and unwinding mechanisms of RNA and DNA helicases
, and the structure of eukaryotic RNA polymerases.
The assay can be used for any enzyme class that produces ADP, including protein, lipid or carbohydrate kinases, ATPases, DNA helicases
, and carboxyltransferases.