assay: To assess the fragmentation of cellular DNA into the characteristic apoptotic ladder, IV-infected HeLa cells were pelleted at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h post infection (pi) and mock infected cells were pelleted at 24 h pi.
Apoptotic fragmentation is commonly a 2-step process in which DNA is first cleaved into fragments of 50-300 kb, termed high-molecular-weight DNA fragmentation
2], followed by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation
(Miller et al.
I have hypothesized that the precursor to Y chromosome deletion is nonspecific DNA fragmentation
in the spermatozoa of the father.
New chapters include those on ISH to whole mount embryo specimens, ISH at the electron microscope level and detection of DNA fragmentation
before taking final measurements with Annexin-V and DNA fragmentation
assays 24 h and 48 h later, respectively.
A DNA ladder was formed at 48 h, indicating DNA fragmentation
in the final phase of apoptosis.
The system does not use DNA fragmentation
or amplification, which are typical with next-generation sequencing, thus providing sequence data over extremely long "reads", ranging from hundreds of kilobases to a megabase, where the sample's structural information is kept.
Acridine Orange (AO) staining: Sperm DNA fragmentation
has now become a new biomarker for male infertility diagnosis (24).
Anthocyanin fractions also resulted in 2-7 times increases in DNA fragmentation
, indicating the induction of apoptosis.
Quantification of DNA fragmentation
Mitochondrial exposure to ROS results in the release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), which directly interacts with the DNA and leads to DNA fragmentation