DHEAS


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DHEAS

Abbreviation for the sulfate salt of dehydroepiandrosterone.

Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate

Synonym/acronym: DHEAS.

Common use

To assist in identifying the cause of infertility, amenorrhea, or hirsutism.

Specimen

Serum (1 mL) collected in a red- or red/gray-top tube. Plasma (1 mL) collected in a lavender-top (EDTA) tube is also acceptable. Place separated serum into a standard transport tube within 2 hr of collection.

Normal findings

(Method: Immunochemiluminometric assay [ICMA])
AgeMale Conventional Units mcg/dLMale SI Units micromol/L (Conventional Units × 0.027)Female Conventional Units mcg/dLFemale SI Units micromol/L (Conventional Units × 0.027)
Newborn108–6072.9–16.4108–6072.9–16.4
7–30 d32–4310.9–11.632–4310.9–11.6
1–5 mo3–1240.1–3.33–1240.1–3.3
6–35 mo0–300–0.80–300–0.8
3–6 yr0–500–1.40–500–1.4
7–9 yr5–1150.1–3.15–940.1–2.5
10–14 yr22–3320.6–922–2550.6–6.9
15–19 yr88–4832.4–1363–3731.7–10
20–29 yr280–6407.6–17.365–3801.8–10.3
30–39 yr120–5203.2–1445–2701.2–7.3
40–49 yr95–5302.6–14.332–2400.9–6.5
50–59 yr70–3101.9–8.426–2000.7–5.4
60–69 yr42–2901.1–7.813–1300.4–3.5
70 yr and older28–1750.8–4.710–900.3–2.4
Tanner StageMale Conventional Units mcg/dLMale SI Units micromol/L (Conventional Units × 0.027)Female Conventional Units mcg/dLFemale SI Units micromol/L (Conventional Units × 0.027)
I7–2090.2–5.67–1260.2–3.4
II28–2600.8–713–2410.4–6.5
III39–3901.1–10.532–4460.9–12
IV & V81–4882.2–13.265–3711.8–10

Description

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is the major precursor of 17-ketosteroids. DHEAS is a metabolite of DHEA, the principal adrenal androgen. DHEAS is primarily synthesized in the adrenal gland, with a small amount secreted by the testes. DHEAS is a weak androgen and can be converted into more potent androgens (e.g., testosterone) as well as estrogens (e.g., estradiol). It is secreted in concert with cortisol, under the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prolactin. Excessive production causes masculinization in women and children. DHEAS has replaced measurement of urinary 17-ketosteroids in the estimation of adrenal androgen production.

This procedure is contraindicated for

    N/A

Indications

  • Assist in the evaluation of androgen excess, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal tumor, and Stein-Leventhal syndrome
  • Evaluate women with infertility, amenorrhea, or hirsutism

Potential diagnosis

Increased in

  • DHEAS is produced by the adrenal cortex and testis; therefore, any condition stimulating these organs or associated feedback mechanisms will result in increased levels.

  • Anovulation
  • Cushing’s syndrome
  • Ectopic ACTH-producing tumors
  • Hirsutism
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Polycystic ovary (Stein-Leventhal syndrome)
  • Virilizing adrenal tumors

Decreased in

    DHEAS is produced by the adrenal cortex and testis; therefore, any condition suppressing the normal function of these organs or associated feedback mechanisms will result in decreased levels.

    Addison’s disease Adrenal insufficiency (primary or secondary) Aging adults (related to natural decline in production with age) Hyperlipidemia Pregnancy (related to DHEAS produced by fetal adrenals and converted to estrogens in the placenta) Psoriasis (some potent topical medications used for long periods of time can result in chronic adrenal insufficiency) Psychosis (related to acute adrenal insufficiency)

Critical findings

    N/A

Interfering factors

  • Drugs that may increase DHEAS levels include aloin, benfluorex, clomiphene, corticotropin, danazol, exemestane, gemfibrozil, metformin, mifepristone, and nitrendipine.
  • Drugs that may decrease DHEAS levels include aspirin, carbamazepine, dexamethasone, exemestane, finasteride, ketoconazole, leuprolide, oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and tamoxifen.

Nursing Implications and Procedure

Pretest

  • Positively identify the patient using at least two unique identifiers before providing care, treatment, or services.
  • Patient Teaching:   Inform the patient this test can assist in diagnosing the cause of hormonal fluctuations.
  • Obtain a history of the patient’s complaints, including a list of known allergens, especially allergies or sensitivities to latex.
  • Obtain a history of the patient’s endocrine system, symptoms, phase of menstrual cycle, and results of previously performed laboratory tests and diagnostic and surgical procedures.
  • Obtain a list of the patient’s current medications, including herbs, nutritional supplements, and nutraceuticals (see Effects of Natural Products on Laboratory Values).
  • Review the procedure with the patient. Inform the patient that specimen collection takes approximately 5 to 10 min. Address concerns about pain and explain that there may be some discomfort during the venipuncture.
  • Sensitivity to social and cultural issues,  as well as concern for modesty, is important in providing psychological support before, during, and after the procedure.
  • Note that there are no food, fluid, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction.

Intratest

  • Potential complications: N/A
  • Avoid the use of equipment containing latex if the patient has a history of allergic reaction to latex.
  • Instruct the patient to cooperate fully and to follow directions. Direct the patient to breathe normally and to avoid unnecessary movement.
  • Observe standard precautions, and follow the general guidelines in Patient Preparation and Specimen Collection. Positively identify the patient, and label the appropriate specimen container with the corresponding patient demographics, initials of the person collecting the specimen, date, and time of collection. Perform a venipuncture.
  • Remove the needle and apply direct pressure with dry gauze to stop bleeding. Observe/assess venipuncture site for bleeding or hematoma formation and secure gauze with adhesive bandage.
  • Promptly transport the specimen to the laboratory for processing and analysis.

Post-Test

  • Inform the patient that a report of the results will be made available to the requesting health-care provider (HCP), who will discuss the results with the patient.
  • Reinforce information given by the patient’s HCP regarding further testing, treatment, or referral to another HCP. Answer any questions or address any concerns voiced by the patient or family.
  • Depending on the results of this procedure, additional testing may be performed to evaluate or monitor progression of the disease process and determine the need for a change in therapy. Evaluate test results in relation to the patient’s symptoms and other tests performed.

Related Monographs

  • Related tests include ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and testosterone.
  • Refer to the Endocrine System table at the end of the book for related tests by body system.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, the authors described the relationships between those psychiatric symptoms, such as negative affect, feelings of worthlessness, sense of rejection, hypersensitivity to criticism, excessive self-examination, social unrest, and also disturbances of sleep or appetite, and DHEAS (15,16).
a-epi-Br is a potent inhibitor of G6PDH, as is the case with DHEA and DHEAS (see above).
Diabetes Results published in PLoS Genetics journal identified eight common genes that controlled the concentration of DHEAS, with some of those genes associated with ageing and age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and lymphoma.
Although its too soon to say if the hormone production is directly linked to wealth, Marmot believes the benefits of wealth, which include a better diet, greater control over life, less stress, more travel and involvement in the wider world through hobbies, sport or other interests will encourage the body to create DHEAS.
This study shows it may be worth investigating DHEAS levels of women under 45 reporting symptoms of low libido with reduced quality of life.
The team plans to give supplements of a chemical closely related to DHEAS to people for three months after hip fractures to see if it increases neutrophil function.
The sera obtained from the control and treated groups were analyzed for testosterone, DHT and DHEAS by radioimmunoassay.
But DHEAS levels varied depending on what type of alcohol was consumed.
Mean testosterone, SHBG, DHEA, and DHEAS concentrations in 14 men <35 years old and 13 men >60 years old are given in Table 2.
However, the timing of DHEAS secretion may be "a major biological clock," Katz says, and may be responsible in part for signaling the end of childhood.
DHEA and its sulfate prohormone DHEAS are the most abundant circulating adrenal steroid hormones in humans.