In pancreatic insufficient CF patients, the situation was completely different, with reductions in LA, AA, and DHA concentrations along with increases in GLA, DGLA, DPA6, EPA, and DPA3 concentrations.
The AA/DGLA ratio is usually described as an index of [DELTA]5 desaturase activity, the enzyme that converts DGLA to AA in the essential fatty acid metabolism (8, 34).
1], forced expiratory volume in 1 s; BMI, body mass index; SFA, saturated fatty acid; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; LA, linoleic acid; GLA, [gamma]-linolenic acid; DGLA, dihomo-[gamma]-linolenic acid; DTA, docosatetraenoic acid; DPA, docosapentaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; ETA, eicosatrienoic acid (mead acid); ALA, [alpha]-linolenic acid.
GLA and DGLA are important structural components of the upper skin (epidermal) layer which regulates moisture loss from the surface of the skin [5,6].
Ziboh and Fletcher  reported that 1500 mg of borage oil per day for six weeks increased the DGLA content in blood cells by 130% and reduced levels of LTB4.
Diabetics have been shown to require higher amounts of EFAs, specifically GLA, because of impairments in D6D activity, which result in reductions in both GLA and DGLA levels in cell membranes .
This balance is thought to be regulated by the complex interaction between DGLA, AA, and EPA.
The administration of GLA, which rapidly converts to DGLA, has been shown to reduce joint swelling and tenderness in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
20) DGLA also exerts its effects on cytokine activity independent of its effeel on COX enzymes.
The enzyme delta-5-desaturase can convert DGLA to AA.