In pancreatic insufficient CF patients, the situation was completely different, with reductions in LA, AA, and DHA concentrations along with increases in GLA, DGLA, DPA6, EPA, and DPA3 concentrations.
The AA/DGLA ratio is usually described as an index of [DELTA]5 desaturase activity, the enzyme that converts DGLA to AA in the essential fatty acid metabolism (8, 34).
1], forced expiratory volume in 1 s; BMI, body mass index; SFA, saturated fatty acid; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; LA, linoleic acid; GLA, [gamma]-linolenic acid; DGLA, dihomo-[gamma]-linolenic acid; DTA, docosatetraenoic acid; DPA, docosapentaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; ETA, eicosatrienoic acid (mead acid); ALA, [alpha]-linolenic acid.
GLA and DGLA are important structural components of the upper skin (epidermal) layer which regulates moisture loss from the surface of the skin [5,6].
Ziboh and Fletcher  reported that 1500 mg of borage oil per day for six weeks increased the DGLA content in blood cells by 130% and reduced levels of LTB4.
Diabetics have been shown to require higher amounts of EFAs, specifically GLA, because of impairments in D6D activity, which result in reductions in both GLA and DGLA levels in cell membranes .
Equateq announced that it has successfully synthesized omega-6 DGLA (Dihomma-Gamma-Linolenic Acid) up to 98% purity.
As a precursor to important eicosanoids, hormone-like substances that regulate cell function and have important anti-inflammatory functions, DGLA (20:3 n-6) performs as a 'sister' fatty acid to omega-3 EPA.
There is a lot of wizardry involved in this, as my team has essentially mimicked processes from within the human body in order to deliver DGLA in a super-pure form," said Equateq CEO Adam Kelliher.
Synthetic DGLA has the best potential as the active ingredient within a topical cream for treatment of eczema, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.