cyanide

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cyanide

 [si´ah-nīd]
a binary compound containing the radical CN— (cyanogen); since cyanide prevents tissue use of oxygen, most of its compounds are deadly poisons. Some inorganic compounds, such as cyanide salts, potassium cyanide, and sodium cyanide, are important in industry for extracting gold and silver from their ores or in electroplating, and other cyanide compounds are used in manufacture of synthetic rubber and textiles or as pesticides.
cyanide poisoning poisoning by cyanide or one of its compounds; most cyanide compounds are deadly poisons. Characteristics include nausea without vomiting, dizziness, convulsions, opisthotonos, and death from respiratory paralysis.

Treatment varies according to the nature of the poison. In the case of swallowed poison like hydrocyanic acid, the poison itself will cause vomiting. If the victim is able to swallow, milk or water may be given. A large dose of hydrocyanic acid will cause almost instant death. If a gas such as hydrogen cyanide has been inhaled, the victim should be taken into open air and given artificial respiration. Sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate are used as antidotes to cyanide poisoning.

While poisoning may occur following exposure to any substance that releases cyanide ions, it can also occur concurrently if another toxic ion is present (for example, with mercuric cyanide). In such a situation, ironically the symptoms of toxicity may change to those of the second ion when the antidote to cyanide is used.

cy·a·nide

(sī'an-īd),
1. The radical -CN or ion (CN)-. The ion is extremely poisonous, forming hydrocyanic acid in water; has the odor of almond oil; inhibits proper metabolism of oxygen through disruption of respiratory proteins (cytochromes) at the cellular level.
2. A salt of HCN or a cyano-containing molecule.
3. Often used as a shortened term to describe cyanide gas.

cyanide

/cy·a·nide/ (si´ah-nīd)
1. a compound containing the cyanide group (—CN) or ion (CN−).

cyanide

A highly reactive compound (CN–) with a high affinity for metal ions (e.g., iron of cytochrome oxidase); in vivo, cyanide usually exists as a salt—e.g., hydrogen cyanide (HCN), potassium cyanide (KCN) and others. HCN is produced by the thermal decomposition of various nitrogen-containing compounds, either natural (e.g., wool and silk) or synthetic (e.g., polyurethane and polyacrylonitrile) It is one of the two principal toxic gases that cause death in fires (the other is carbon monoxide); ambient cyanide levels of > 500 ppm are lethal within 10 minutes.
 
Laboratory
The mean cyanide concentration of victims who died in fatal fires in one study was 116 µmol/L, and 22 µmol/L in those who lived; the serum T1⁄2 for HCN is one hour. The plasma lactate levels in those who died was 29 mmol/L; lactate levels correlate well with HCN levels and may serve as a surrogate marker.
 
Management
Various agents have been used to treat cyanide poisoning, in particular those that transform haemoglobin to methaemoglobin, which avidly binds cyanide. This manoeuvre is limited by the methaemoglobin’s ferric state (Fe3+), which cannot bind O2, and at levels of > 30% exacerbates the tissue hypoxia caused by the cyanides.

cyanide

Toxicology A reactive ion–CN– with a high affinity for metal ions–eg, iron of cytochrome oxidase; in vivo, cyanide usually exists as a salt–eg, hydrogen cyanide–HCN, KCN, etc Lab Mean cyanide concentration of victims who died in fatal fires in one study was 116 µmol/L, and 22 µmol/L in those who lived; serum T1⁄2 for HCN is 1 hr; plasma lactate levels in those who died was 29 mmol/L; lactate levels correlate well with HCN levels and may serve as a surrogate marker Management Agents used to treat cyanide poisoning, include those that transform Hb to metHb, which avidly binds cyanide; this maneuver is limited by metHb's ferric state–Fe3+, which cannot bind O2, and at > 30% exacerbates tissue hypoxia caused by the cyanides

cy·a·nide

(sī'ăn-īd)
1. The radical -CN or ion (CN-). The ion is extremely poisonous, forming hydrocyanic acid in water; inhibits respiratory enzymes.
2. A salt of HCN.
3. A molecule containing a cyanide group.
4. A class of toxic chemical-warfare agents.
See also: blood agent, hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride

cyanide

any salt of hydrocyanic acid. Potassium cyanide (KCN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are the commonest examples of cyanides, all of which are extremely poisonous. They combine with cytochrome enzymes (e.g. CYTOCHROME OXIDASE), which transfer hydrogen atoms in CELLULAR RESPIRATION, and thus block the production of energy in the cells.

cyanide

a binary compound of cyanogen. Some inorganic compounds, such as cyanide salts, potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide, are important in industry for extracting gold and silver from their ores and in electroplating. Other cyanide compounds are used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber and textiles. Cyanides are also used in pesticides.
There are many potential sources of cyanide in the environment of farm animals. Cyanide poisoning occurs most commonly when cattle gain access to a bulk supply of a cyanogenetic plant, e.g. sudan grass, immature sorghum. Typical clinical signs are dyspnea within a few minutes of getting access to the food, restlessness, recumbency and death within a matter of 15 minutes to 2 hours. The cyanide is not free in the plants but is combined with a glycoside radical and must be degraded by ruminal enzymes to release its HCN. Called also hydrocyanic acid. See cyanogenetic glycosides.
References in periodicals archive ?
Though cyanofeerocene is a better acceptor than ferrocene, the cyano group on cyanoferrocene causes the cyclopentadieny1 rings to tilt such that the unsubstiuted side of cyanoferrocene does not have as much separation for the donor to intercollate between the cyclopentadieny1 rings.
The researchers sandwiched PPV in between layers of the new cyano polymer to help charge transport, and they replaced troublesome calcium cathodes with simpler aluminum ones, further improving the film's operation.
2 for 1 (R = 2-cyanophenyl, E = Se) the cyano groups do indeed serve as "molecular ties", producing the desired solid state ordering |6~.
Specifically, indoles possessing a variety of electronically different substituents, including halogen, alkyl, alkoxy, cyano and methoxy carbonyl groups at different positions on the bezene ring undergo reaction to produce the corre-sponding substituted tertiary alcohol in good to ex-cellent yields (Table 2, compounds 4, 5, 7-12, 14, 16-21).
Polymerization occurs through the cyano groups on phthalonitrile units by an addition mechanism to afford the heterocyclic cross-linked products such as polytriazine, polyimine, and polyphthalocyanine, which ensures that these materials possess excellent thermal and oxidative stability [2, 11-13].
Unfortunately, many SFC separations have been forced to utilize older types of stationary phases from normal phase HPLC, such as unmodified silica, diol, amino and cyano.
HCN and chemical evolution: the possible role of cyano compounds in prebiotic synthesis.
Senniappan, In-Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Derivative of Azo Dye from Cyano Ester, Inter.
The company is launching more phase chemistries, expanding the selectivity available with its Diphenyl functionality as well as adding a C8, Cyano and HILIC phase chemistry to the 1.
85 billion (US$340 million) for 1) revamping Sinopec Guangzhou ethylene facilities; 2) the PTA project in Yizheng Chemical Fiber which will be put into trial run; 3) the cyano ethylene facilities in Shanghai Petrochemical that have been successfully put into trial run; 4) the second round of revamping the paraxylene facilities in Zhenhai Refining; 5) revamping the Sinopec Qilu ethylene facilities; and 6) constructing the Yangzi BASF integration project and the Shanghai Secco ethylene facility.
Senniappan, In-Vitro Anti-microbail Activity of Novel Derivative of Azo Dye from Cyano Ester, Int.
In the light of these facts, we proposed to synthesize a series of poly(aryl ether ketone) oligomers containing phthalonitrile with variable main chain length and cyano side groups by using 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,6-difluorobenzonitrile, and the endcapping reagent 4-nitrophthalonitrile.