Both of these are transcriptional factors that regulate the expression of cryptochrome
(CRY1 and CRY2) and period (PER1, PER2, PER3) genes.
The research also shows that removing the light-receptor Cryptochrome
, an important component in synchronising the clock to the daily light changes, leads to the flies being more sensitive to temperature changes.
The blue light receptor cryptochrome
1 can act independently of phytochrome A and B in Arabidopsis thaliana.
That could be a quantum compass, one that depends on weird subatomic effects such as temporary differences between entangled electrons in a molecule such as cryptochrome
(SN Online: 1/7/11).
It found that a key protein, cryptochrome
, that regulates the biological clocks of plants, insects and mammals also regulates glucose production in the liver and that altering the levels of this protein could improve the health of diabetic mice.
Drugs profile discussed in this report include ALD-1613, AT-814, ATR-101, DG-3173, ISIS-GCCRRx, ketoconazole, LCI-699, mifepristone, MPP-482, pasireotide LAR, Peptides to Antagonize ACTH Receptor for Cushing's Syndrome, Small Molecule to Antagonize Melanocortin Receptor 2 for Cushing's Disease, Small Molecule to Inhibit CYP11B1 for Cushing's Disease and Subclinical Hypercortisolism, Small Molecules to Antagonize Steroidogenic Factor-1 for Endometriosis, Cancer and Cushing's Disease, Small Molecules to Inhibit Cortisol for Metabolic Disorders, Small Molecules to Modulate Cryptochrome
for Metabolic and CNS Disorders.
To test whether the human cryptochrome
2 protein (hCRY2) has a similar magnetic sensory ability, Steven Reppert, MD, the Higgins Family Professor of Neuroscience and chair and professor of neurobiology, graduate student Lauren Foley, and Robert Gegear, PhD, a post doctoral fellow in the Reppert lab now an assistant professor of biology and biotechnology at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, created a transgenic Drosophila model lacking its native cryptochrome
protein but expressing hCRY2 instead.
Though theoretical work doesn't show a benefit to entangling the electrons of cryptochrome
(a molecule thought to be important in navigation), researchers plan to test the idea in other molecules (SN Online: 4/30/10).
Stanewsky had previously isolated a specialised circadian photoreceptor named CRYPTOCHROME
(CRY) which is active directly within the clock neurones of flies' brains.
Period teams with named CLOCK and cycle cryptochrome
to stop CLOCK.
In the case of Drosophila, previous studies from the Reppert laboratory have shown that the cryptochrome
protein found in these flies can function as a light-dependent magnetic sensor.
But what we found that's so significant is that a particular biological clock protein, cryptochrome
, is actually regulating how the hormone that regulates glucose production in the liver works in a very specific way," he added.