CIDP

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CIDP

chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)

a slowly progressive autoimmune neurological disorder with demyelination of the peripheral nerves and nerve roots, characterized by progressive weakness and impaired sensory function (loss of reflexes) in the limbs and enlargement of the peripheral nerves and usually by elevated protein in the cerebrospinal fluid. It occurs most commonly in young adults, particularly males. Presenting symptoms often include tingling or numbness of the digits, weakness of the limbs, hyporeflexia or areflexia, fatigue, and abnormal sensations. It is similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome but has a slower onset and lasts much longer.

polyneuropathy

(pol?e-noo-rop'a-the) [ poly- + neuropathy]
Any disease that affects multiple peripheral nerves.

acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Guillain-Barré syndrome.

acute inflammatory polyneuropathy

Guillain-Barré syndrome.

amyloid polyneuropathy

Polyneuropathy characterized by deposition of amyloid in nerves.

chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Abbreviation: CIDP
A gradually progressing autoimmune muscle weakness in arms and legs caused by inflammation of the myelin sheath covering peripheral nerve axons. Demyelination slows or blocks conduction of impulses to muscles. Numbness and paresthesia may accompany or precede loss of motor function, which varies from mild to severe. Laboratory findings include elevated protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. The inflammatory damage involves not only phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages), but also immune complexes and complement activation by myelin autoantigens. Immunosuppressive drugs are used to treat this illness. Plasma exchange therapy or infusions of immunoglobulins often are used first, to produce a remission. CIDP is considered to be a chronic counterpart to Guillain-Barré syndrome.

critical illness polyneuropathy

Abbreviation: CIP
A complication occurring in patients in intensive care in which failure to wean from mechanical ventilation is associated with distal limb weakness, loss of distal sensation from light touch or pinprick, and diminished reflexes; facial muscles and nerves are spared. Recovery typically occurs several weeks or months after resolution of the underlying disease. It is associated with the use of drugs, such as corticosteroids or paralytic agents, and neurological illnesses, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome.

diabetic polyneuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy.

familial amyloiditic polyneuropathy

An inherited form of amyloid polyneuropathy in which abnormal forms of transthyretin are deposited in nerves and brain tissue, making multiple nerves malfunction.

paraproteinemic polyneuropathy

Polyneuropathy due to excessive levels of immunoglobulin in the blood. The most commonly implicated immunoglobulins are IgM and IgG.

porphyric polyneuropathy

Polyneuropathy due to acute porphyria, characterized by pains and paresthesias in the extremities and by flaccid paralysis.

progressive hypertrophic polyneuropathy

Déjérine-Sottas disease.

chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Abbreviation: CIDP
A gradually progressing autoimmune muscle weakness in arms and legs caused by inflammation of the myelin sheath covering peripheral nerve axons. Demyelination slows or blocks conduction of impulses to muscles. Numbness and paresthesia may accompany or precede loss of motor function, which varies from mild to severe. Laboratory findings include elevated protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. The inflammatory damage involves not only phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages), but also immune complexes and complement activation by myelin autoantigens. Immunosuppressive drugs are used to treat this illness. Plasma exchange therapy or infusions of immunoglobulins often are used first, to produce a remission. CIDP is considered to be a chronic counterpart to Guillain-Barré syndrome.
See also: polyneuropathy