The emergence of several new drug classes over the past decade, namely the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and Sodium--Glucose Cotransporter
2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, has led to considerable market growth.
Similarly, RDX002, a type 2a sodium phosphate cotransporter
(NaP2b) inhibitor, is being developed by Sanofi.
The educational session "Directions in Diabetes -- Exploring Options for Patient Care" had expert endocrinologists present the action of DPP-4 enzyme inhibitors and introduced the relatively new Sodium Glucose CoTransporter
(SGLT2) inhibitor class of diabetes therapy and presented physician results from the global IntroDia survey.
SLC4A4 encodes a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter
involved in the regulation of bicarbonate secretion and absorption, as well as intracellular pH.
Bumetanide inhibition of the blood-brain barrier Na-K-Cl cotransporter
reduces edema formation in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke.
Canagliflozin (Invokana) is a sodium-glucose cotransporter
2 inhibitor, the first drug in this class to be approved.
AstraZeneca today announced that the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) approved FORXIGAA (dapagliflozin in 5 and 10 mg tablets), a sodium-glucose cotransporter
2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, as a once-daily oral treatment for type 2 diabetes.
type II inhibitors (SGLT2): from familial renal glucosuria to the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus.
Hereditary hypop-hosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria is caused by mutations in the sodium-phosphate cotransporter
activity was inhibited 75% by TNF-[alpha], exposure.
intraperitoneal, DPO = darbepoietin, Cr = creatinine, TNF-[alpha] = tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-2 = interleukin-2, LDH = lactate dehy- drogenase, rHuEPO = recombinant human erythropoietin, PTC = proximal tubule cell, MPO = myeloperoxidase, NAG = N-acetylglutamate, AST = aspartate aminotransferase (indicates reperfusion injury), FENa-fractional excretion of Na+, AQP = aquaporin, NHE = Na+/H+ exchanger, TSC = thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter
, bcl-2 = oncogene activated by chromosome translocation in human B-cell lymphomas, JNK = c-Jun N-terminal kinase, HSP70 = heat shock protein 70.
Transfer of SW-acclimated flounder to FW reduced gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter
protein, increased plasma IGF-I, but did not alter hepatic IGF-I mRNA or plasma cortisol levels according to their experiment.