plastic surgery

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plastic

 [plas´tik]
1. tending to build up tissues or to restore a lost part.
2. capable of being molded.
3. a high-molecular-weight polymeric material, usually organic, capable of being molded, extruded, drawn, or otherwise shaped and then hardened into a form.
4. material that can be molded.
plastic surgery surgery concerned with the restoration, reconstruction, correction, or improvement in the shape and appearance of body structures that are defective, damaged, or misshapen by injury, disease, or anomalous growth and development. This kind of surgery has been practiced for thousands of years. Artificial noses and ears have been found on Egyptian mummies. Medical records show that the ancient Hindus reconstructed noses by using skin flaps lifted from the cheek or forehead—a technique that was often practiced, since it was a custom to mutilate the noses of persons who broke the laws.
Skin Grafting. This is the most common procedure of plastic surgery, consisting of the replacement of severely damaged skin in one area with healthy skin from another area of the patient's body or from the body of a skin donor. (See further discussion at grafting.) With the advent of microsurgery, much of the inconvenience and lengthy waiting necessary for successful grafting of skin flaps has been eliminated.

The transplanting of tissues other than skin also is possible through microsurgery. Free-bone grafts can be used to provide rapid replacement of long bone defects, and free muscle transfers permit restoration of muscle function.
Repairing Mouth and Other Defects. Among common defects that can be corrected by plastic surgery are cleft lip and cleft palate. Others are webbed fingers and toes, protruding or missing ears, receding chins, and injured noses. In addition, the shape of various types of noses can be altered for the sake of appearance. rhytidectomy is another common type of plastic surgery, done on the face to improve the aging patient's appearance. It is popularly known as a face lift.
Facial Reconstruction. In facial reconstruction, missing bone and muscle, and sometimes skin, are replaced by substitutes. Sometimes the reconstruction is made with bone or cartilage taken from another part of the body, or sometimes it is made by artificial means.
Use of Prostheses. Often the substitute for missing tissue is a prosthesis, a replacement not made from living tissue. It may be inserted beneath the skin (such as to build out a receding chin) or attached to the skin surface (for example, to replace an ear). Prostheses attached to, not inserted beneath, the skin frequently are employed to fill out depressed or missing facial areas, the aftereffects of accidents, cancer, or war injuries. In building such a replacement, the surgeon first makes an impression of the face and a plaster cast of the impression. The substitute part is molded in wax or clay in the plaster cast, and from this model the actual replacement part is made. Such parts, molded and painted to match the texture and color of the skin, have been used to replace many structures, including missing ears and noses.
Use of Cartilage, Skin, and Bone. Noses and ears also have been reconstructed with rib cartilage and skin grafts. Eyebrows have been made by the use of skin grafts from the scalp, and chest deformities repaired by the use of bone chips from other parts of the body.

Sometimes a nose is remodeled to correct a hump or hook, or a saddle nose (a depression on the ridge), or a twisted nose. Incisions are made inside to avoid causing outside scars, and the surgeon either removes excess cartilage or bone, or inserts it, according to the improvement wanted. Cartilage and bone may be obtained from other parts of the body, usually the ribs or hip. After the operation, the skin over the nose adapts to the new structure.
Dermabrasion. Skin blemishes such as acne scars and pits can be “sandpapered” or planed. This technique, called dermabrasion, seeks to correct superficial blemishes and to remove superficial accumulations of pigment. However, as dermabrasion can occasionally cause increased scarring or introduce variation in skin color and texture, such treatment is infrequently performed today.

surgery

 [sur´jer-e]
1. the branch of health science that treats diseases, injuries, and deformities by manual or operative methods.
2. the place where operative procedures are performed.
3. in Great Britain, a room or office where a doctor sees and treats patients.
4. the work performed by a surgeon; see also operation and procedure. adj., adj sur´gical.
ambulatory surgery any operative procedure not requiring an overnight stay in the hospital; it must be carefully planned to ensure that all necessary diagnostic tests are completed prior to admission. Discharge instructions must place a high priority on patient safety. Called also day surgery.
bench surgery surgery performed on an organ that has been removed from the body, after which it is reimplanted.
day surgery ambulatory surgery.
maxillofacial surgery oral and maxillofacial s.
minimal access surgery (minimally invasive surgery) a surgical procedure done in a manner that causes little or no trauma or injury to the patient, such as through a cannula using lasers, endoscopes, or laparoscopes; compared with other procedures, those in this category involve less bleeding, smaller amounts of anesthesia, less pain, and minimal scarring.
open heart surgery surgery that involves incision into one or more chambers of the heart, such as for repair or palliation of congenital heart defects, repair or replacement of defective heart valves, or coronary artery bypass.
oral and maxillofacial surgery that branch of dental practice that deals with the diagnosis and the surgical and adjunctive treatment of diseases, injuries, and defects of the human mouth and dental structures. Called also maxillofacial or oral surgery.
orthopedic surgery orthopedics.
plastic surgery see plastic surgery.
stereotaxic surgery the production of sharply localized lesions in the brain after precise localization of the target tissue by use of three-dimensional coordinates.

plas·tic sur·ger·y

the surgical specialty or procedure concerned with the restoration, construction, reconstruction, or improvement in the form, function, and appearance of body structures that are missing, defective, damaged, or misshapen. Encompasses both reconstructive and aesthetic surgery.

plastic surgery

n.
Surgery to remodel, repair, or restore the appearance and sometimes the function of body parts. It includes reconstructive surgery such as skin grafts and repair of congenital defects as well as cosmetic surgery.

plastic surgeon n.

plastic surgery

Etymology: Gk, plassein, to mold, cheirourgia, surgery
surgery to heal, reconstruct, restore function, and correct disfigurement or scarring resulting from trauma or acquired or congenital lesions or defects. In performing corrective plastic surgery, the surgeon may use tissue from the patient or from another person or an inert material that is nonirritating, has a consistency appropriate to the use, and is able to hold its shape and form indefinitely. Implants are commonly used in mammoplasty for breast augmentation. Skin grafting is the most common procedure in plastic surgery. Z-plasty and Y-plasty are simpler techniques often performed instead of grafting in areas of the body covered by skin that is loose and elastic, such as the neck, axilla, throat, and inner aspect of the elbow. Dermabrasion is used to remove pockmarks, acne scars, or signs of traumatic skin damage. Chemical peeling is another technique in corrective plastic surgery. It is used primarily for removing fine wrinkles on the face. Tattooing, in which a pigment is tattooed into the skin of a graft, is performed to change the color of the graft to resemble more closely the surrounding skin. Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct birth defects, to repair structures destroyed by trauma, and to replace tissue removed in other surgical procedures. Cleft lip and cleft palate repair and other maxillofacial surgical procedures, including rhinoplasty, otoplasty, and rhytidoplasty, are among these reconstructive procedures. Care of the patient before and after plastic surgery may require considerable sensitivity and tact. The patient may be exceedingly uncomfortable about the real or perceived appearance of the defect. An accepting, nonjudgmental attitude of all staff members is to the patient's benefit. Optimal nutritional status helps a graft to "take" and speeds healing. Each procedure and technique involves particular kinds of care in the preoperative and postoperative periods. Instructions and assistance in self-care activities are also specific to the procedure. Success of most of the procedures depends greatly on the patient's cooperation and on fastidious nursing care. The correction of a visible abnormality may be of inestimable benefit to the patient's assurance, self-esteem, and function in society. See also specific procedures. Also called cosmetic surgery, reconstructive surgery.
enlarge picture
Plastic surgery: excision of excess lid tissue

plas·tic sur·ge·ry

(plas'tik sŭr'jĕr-ē)
The surgical specialty or procedure concerned with the restoration, construction, reconstruction, or improvement in the shape and appearance of body structures that are missing, defective, damaged, or misshapen.

plastic surgery

Any surgical procedure designed to repair or reconstruct injured, diseased or malformed tissue so as to restore normal appearance and function. Compare COSMETIC SURGERY.

Plastic surgery

The restoring and reshaping of the skin and its appendages to improve their function and appearance.
Mentioned in: Peyronie's Disease

plas·tic sur·ge·ry

(plas'tik sŭr'jĕr-ē)
The surgical specialty or procedure concerned with the restoration, construction, reconstruction, or improvement in the shape and appearance of body structures.

surgery

1. that branch of veterinary science which treats diseases, injuries and deformities by manual or operative methods.
2. the place in a hospital, or doctor's or dentist's office where surgery is performed.
3. in some countries a room or office where a veterinarian sees and treats patients.
4. the work performed by a surgeon.

basic surgery kit
the collection of instruments, wrapped, sterilized and ready for use in the majority of uncomplicated surgical procedures. The choice of instruments may vary from one surgeon to another, but generally there are tissue forceps, thumb forceps, sponge forceps, hemostats, towel clamps, scalpel handle and needle holder. Scissors and needles may be added after cold sterilization.
bench surgery
surgery performed on an organ that has been removed from the body, after which it is reimplanted.
cold steel surgery
that performed with traditional cutting instruments; to distinguish from cryosurgical and electrosurgical methods.
cosmetic surgery
performed to improve the appearance, or change the appearance, of the animal; surgery that is not necessary for the health of the animal. Other than ear cropping and tail docking, where performed, generally discouraged or considered unethical for animals as it is usually done for purposes of improving their appearance in the show ring or to disguise traits that might be heritable.
elective surgery
surgery carried out at a time convenient to client and surgeon. The opposite of emergency surgery. Distinctly different to cosmetic surgery.
experimental surgery
that carried out as part of a planned experimental protocol, usually on animals selected specifically for the purpose and which are often sacrificed afterwards. Increasingly, use of animals in this way is under the control of institutional or governmental authorities.
plastic surgery
that concerned with the restoration, reconstruction, correction or improvement in the shape and appearance of body structures that are defective, damaged or misshapen by injury, disease or anomalous growth and development.
replacement surgery
transplanting of tissues or organs from another host. Not commonly undertaken in veterinary surgery.
veterinary surgery
see veterinary surgery.
References in periodicals archive ?
Executive-level patients request procedures ranging from basic skincare protection to cosmetic surgical procedures.
The surgeons at Sarasota Plastic Surgery have 20 combined years of experience and offer a complete range of both reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgical procedures.
Newman is a member, notes an increase in cosmetic surgical procedures for 2010 with breast augmentation as the No.
4, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- The International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ISAPS) has issued a warning to all individuals seeking less expensive cosmetic surgical procedures, particularly outside their home country, and especially in the hands of unlicensed practitioners operating without board certification.
He has extensive training in craniofacial surgery, facial cosmetic surgery and pediatric plastic surgery, which allows him to successfully perform a wide range of complex reconstructive and cosmetic surgical procedures on both adults and children.
The top three most performed cosmetic surgical procedures in 2008 include liposuction, blepharoplasty and breast augmentation.
On the flipside, limiting further gains will be growing pricing pressures and intense competition from alternative treatments, including laser resurfacing and various cosmetic surgical procedures.
Scott E Newman predicts 2011 to see a rise in cosmetic surgical procedures, more so to the areas between the neck and hips.
Wanting to maintain a youthful, vibrant appearance, the most common cosmetic surgical procedures undergone by women are rhinoplasties, followed by facelifts, blepharoplasties and laser skin resurfacing.
Key Topics Covered: CHAPTER ONE: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CHAPTER TWO: GLOBAL OVERVIEW CHAPTER THREE: GLOBAL DEMOGRAPHICS AND HEALTH INDICATORS CHAPTER FOUR: INDUSTRY ISSUES AND TRENDS CHAPTER FIVE: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PROCEDURES CHAPTER SIX: DIGESTIVE/GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM PROCEDURES CHAPTER SEVEN: OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL PROCEDURES CHAPTER EIGHT: ORTHOPEDIC PROCEDURES CHAPTER NINE: ENT AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PROCEDURES CHAPTER TEN: URINARY SYSTEM PROCEDURES CHAPTER ELEVEN: AESTHETIC AND COSMETIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES CHAPTER TWELVE: OTHER SURGICAL PROCEDURES CHAPTER THIRTEEN: PROCEDURE VOLUMES GLOBAL SUMMARY For more information visit http://www.
According to a study, cosmetic surgical procedures have dipped 15 percent in the past year, and nonsurgical procedures are down 12 percent.
Bridges on the forefront of facial reconstruction and cosmetic surgical procedures.