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The principal glucocorticoid produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. It promotes gluconeogenesis and lipolysis, suppresses protein synthesis, inhibits inflammatory and immune responses, and has mild mineralocorticoid (for example, hypernatremic, kaliureteric, antidiuretic) effects. Most plasma cortisol is bound to transcortin and albumin. Synthetic cortisol administered as a drug is usually known by the alternative name hydrocortisone.
cortisol/cor·ti·sol/ (-sol) the major natural glucocorticoid elaborated by the adrenal cortex; it affects the metabolism of glucose, protein, and fats and has mineralocorticoid activity. See hydrocortisone for therapeutic uses.
cortisol(kôr′tĭ-sôl′, -zôl′, -sōl′, -zōl′)
A steroid hormone, C21H30O5, produced by the adrenal cortex, that regulates carbohydrate metabolism, maintains blood pressure, and is released in response to stress; hydrocortisone.
a steroid hormone produced naturally by the adrenal gland, identical to chemically synthesized hydrocortisone.
indications It is prescribed for adrenocortical insufficiency, topically for inflammation, and as an adjunct for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
contraindications Fungal infections or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its systemic use. Viral or fungal infections of the skin, impaired circulation, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its topical use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse reactions to this drug are GI, endocrine, neurological, fluid, and electrolyte disturbances. Hypersensitivity reactions may result from topical administration.
cortisolHydrocortisone A major hormone produced by the adrenal cortex, which is the primary glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal gland in response to ACTH stimulation or stress; cortisol has anti-inflammatory activity, and is involved in gluconeogenesis, glycogen storage in the liver, immune regulation, mediation of physiologic stress responses, Ca2+ absorption, secretion of gastric acid and pepsin, conversion of proteins to carbohydrates, and nutrient metabolism; it is secreted in a diurnal pattern–levels rise early morning, peak ± 8 am, and flatten in the evening, diurnal cycling is lost in Cushing syndrome; cortisol secretion is influenced by heat, cold, infection, trauma, excercise, obesity, intercurrent illness ↑ in Adrenal CA, Cushing's disease, ectopic ACTH, ectopic CRH, hyperthyroidism, depression, alcoholism, substance abuse, anorexia, heavy smoking, CA, ulcers, DM, chronic pain, strokes, CVA, Parkinson's disease, MS, psoriasis, acne, eczema, stress, aging, Alzheimer's disease, AIDS, space adaptation syndrome ↓ in Addison's disease, hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism. See Corticosteroid, Dexamethasone suppression test.
A steroid hormone secreted by the cortex of the suprarenal gland and the most potent of the naturally occurring glucocorticoids in humans.
cortisolA hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. Also called hydrocortisone.
hydrocortisonean adrenocortical steroid with effects similar to CORTISONE.
A hormone released by the cortex (outer portion) of the adrenal gland when a person is under stress. Cortisol levels are now considered a biological marker of suicide risk.
glucocorticoidsthe group of corticosteroid hormones (mainly cortisol syn hydrocortisone, of which cortisone is the precursor) produced by the adrenal cortex, under the control of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. Their major actions on nutrient metabolism have the net effect of promoting glucose and free fatty acid availability as fuels. Also vital for normal cellular processes as diverse, for example, as excitation-contraction coupling and the health of connective tissues. Synthetic steroids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone have similar actions and are used in the treatment of, for example, asthma and rheumatic conditions. Banned in sport due to their powerful anti-inflammatory action and effect of producing euphoria and masking pain. (Not to be confused with anabolic steroids). See also adrenal glands, hormones; Table 1.
|Site of production||Name of hormone||Main targets||Involved in regulating:||Secretion controlled by:|
|Hypothalamus||Releasing and inhibiting hormones||Anterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)||Secretion of anterior pituitary hormones||Other brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions|
|Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:|
|Oxytocin||Uterus, breasts||Labour and lactation||Afferent information from target organs|
|Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)||Kidneys||Water loss: ECF volume and osmolality||Hypothalamic osmoreceptors|
|Anterior pituitary||(Human) growth hormone (H)GH||Most cells||Growth and metabolism||Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels|
|Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)||Thyroid gland||Thyroid secretions|
|Gonadotrophins||Ovary or testis||Germ cell maturation and hormone secretions|
|Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)||Adrenal cortex||Cortisol secretion|
|Pineal body||Melatonin||Widespread, including brain, thymus, etc.||Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina|
|Parathyroids||Parathormone||Bone, kidneys, gut||ECF [Ca2+]|
|Medulla||Heart, smooth muscle, glands||Cardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stress||Sympathetic nervous system|
|Atrial wall||Atrial natriuretic hormone||Kidneys||Blood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urine||Stretch of atrial wall by venous pressure|
|Gonads: Testis||Androgens (mainly testosterone)||Genitalia and other tissues||Reproductive function and sex characteristics||Anterior pituitary gonadotrophins|
|Ovary||Uterus, breasts and other tissues||Menstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation|
|Pancreas||Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fats||Blood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones|
|Stomach||Gastrin||Gastric acid-secreting cells||Gastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretions||Local chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract|
|Small intestine||Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretions||Ingestion of food, distension of GI tract|
hydrocortisone; cortisol potent, naturally occurring glucocorticoids that suppress inflammation (e.g. topical ointment; intra-articular or enthesis injection)
n an adrenal hormone produced in response to stress.
Principal glucocorticoid produced by the zona fasciculata of the cortex of the suprarenal gland; promotes gluconeogenesis and lipolysis and inhibits inflammatory and immune responses.
n See hydrocortisone.
a hormone from the adrenal cortex; the principal glucocorticoid. Called also 17-hydroxycorticosterone and, pharmaceutically, hydrocortisone. A synthetic preparation is used for its anti-inflammatory actions.
much plasma cortisol is bound to a α-globulin—transcortin, some to albumin. Much is free and in the form of a glycuronide or sulfate.
the ratio between the two hormones is different between species and even between individual animals. There is also a circadian rhythm in the ratio which must therefore be interpreted with caution.
cortisol:creatinine (C/C) ratio
measured in the urine as a screening test for hyperadrenocorticism.