corticosteroid

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corticosteroid

 [kor″tĭ-ko-ster´oid]
any of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; also, their synthetic equivalents. Called also adrenocortical hormone and adrenocorticoid. All the hormones are steroids having similar chemical structures, but quite different physiologic effects. Generally they are divided into glucocorticoids (cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone and desoxycorticosterone, and also corticosterone) and androgens.

Patients who must take exogenous adrenal corticosteroids to supplement a deficit in endogenous cortisol or as a treatment for metastatic breast cancer should be thoroughly instructed in self-medication. Their needs are somewhat similar to those of the insulin-dependent diabetic patient. They should know the prescribed dosage and basic therapeutic action of the oral corticosteroid preparation they are taking and should be aware of the importance of taking the medication at the same time every day. The medication should never be discontinued abruptly for any reason. It is advisable that the patient carry an extra prescription when traveling, in case the supply is used up before returning home. These patients also need to wear some form of medical identification so that all health care professionals with whom they come in contact will know that they are receiving hormones of this kind. This includes dentists, oral surgeons, emergency department personnel, and others who might not be familiar with the patient's medical history.

cor·ti·co·ste·roid

(kōr'ti-kō-stĕr'oyd),
A steroid produced by the adrenal cortex (that is, adrenal corticoid); a corticoid containing a steroid.
Synonym(s): adrenocorticoid, corticoid (3) , cortin

corticosteroid

/cor·ti·co·ster·oid/ (-ster´oid) any of the steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones) or any synthetic equivalents; divided into two major groups, the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids; used clinically for hormonal replacement therapy, for suppression of ACTH secretion, as anti-inflammatory agents, and to suppress the immune response.

corticosteroid

(kôr′tĭ-kō-stĕr′oid′,-stîr′-)
n.
Any of the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex or their synthetic equivalents, including the glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, and the mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone. Also called adrenocorticosteroid.

corticosteroid

[kôr′tikōstir′oid]
Etymology: L, cortex + steros, solid
any one of hormones elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones of adrenal origin) that influence or control key processes of the body. These processes include carbohydrate and protein metabolism, maintenance of serum glucose levels, electrolyte and water balance, and functions of the cardiovascular system, the skeletal muscle, the kidneys, and other organs. The corticosteroids synthesized by the adrenal glands include the glucocorticoids and the mineralocorticoids. The principal glucocorticoids are cortisol and corticosterone. The only physiologically important mineralocorticoid in humans is aldosterone. These hormones may be manufactured and administered exogenously. The glucocorticoids tend to cause the cells of the body to shift from carbohydrate catabolism to fat catabolism, to accelerate the breakdown of proteins to amino acids, and to help maintain normal blood pressure. The secretion of these hormones increases during stress, especially that produced by anxiety and severe injury. Chronic overproduction of these substances is associated with various disorders, such as Cushing's syndrome. A high blood level of glucocorticoids markedly increases the number of eosinophils and decreases the size of lymphatic tissues, especially the thymus and the lymph nodes. The decrease in lymphocytes slows antibody formation and affects the body's immune system. Aldosterone is the most powerful of the natural mineralocorticoids in the regulation of electrolyte balance, especially in the balance of sodium and potassium. Cortisol induces sodium retention and potassium excretion, but less effectively than aldosterone. The effects of the corticosteroids on the cardiovascular system, which are not precisely understood, are most evident in hypocortisolism, when the reduction in blood volume, accompanied by increased viscosity, may cause hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. The absence of corticosteroids decreases capillary permeability, decreases vasomotor response of small vessels, and reduces cardiac size and output. The skeletal muscles require adequate amounts of corticosteroids to function normally; excessive amounts cause them to function abnormally. Cortisol and its synthetic analogs can prevent or reduce inflammation by inhibiting edema, leukocytic migration, and disposition of collagen and by causing other complications associated with inflammatory processes. The antiinflammatory actions of synthetic hormones can be harmful, however, because they mask the disease process and prevent accurate observation of its progress. Hypoadrenalism may result from the too rapid withdrawal of such drugs after prolonged therapy. Toxic effects associated with prolonged large dose corticosteroid therapy include fluid and electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia and glycosuria, increased susceptibility to infections, myopathy, arrested growth, ecchymoses, Cushing's syndrome, acne, and behavioral disturbances. Myopathy, characterized by weakness of the proximal musculature of the arms and the legs and associated shoulder and pelvic muscles, may also develop. Corticosteroid therapy may also produce behavioral changes, such as schizophrenia, suicidal tendencies, nervousness, and insomnia. See also adrenal crisis.

corticosteroid

Clinical pharmacology Any of the steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex–excluding the sex hormones of adrenal origin in response to the release of ACTH by the pituitary gland, to any of their synthetic equivalents or to angiotensin II; corticosteroids are used to manage arthropathies, inflammation, CA

cor·ti·co·ste·roid

(kōr'ti-kō-ster'oyd)
A steroid produced by the cortex of the suprarenal gland (i.e., adrenal corticoid); a corticoid containing a steroid.
Synonym(s): corticoid (3) .

corticosteroid

a steroid hormone of the adrenal cortex.

Corticosteroid

A class of drugs based on hormones formed in the adrenal gland, used to reduce inflammation. They increase the likelihood of hyperinfection syndrome in patients with threadworm infection.

corticosteroid

synthetic analogue of adrenal corticosteroid taken systemically (e.g. prednisolone), injected into a joint (e.g. hydrocortisone) or applied topically (e.g. HC45) to reduce acute inflammation; used parenterally as replacement therapy in Addison's disease or following adrenalectomy
  • topical corticosteroid Table 1

Table 1: Potencies of topical corticosteroid preparations
PotencyExamples
Mild
Mild with anti-microbial
e.g.: Hydrocortisone 0.5-1%
e.g.: Canesten HC, Daktacort, Fucidin H; Synalar 1:10
Moderatee.g.: Betnovate RD; Eumovate, Haelan; Synalar 1:4
Moderate with anti-microbiale.g.: Trimovate
Moderate with ureae.g.: Calmurid HC
Potente.g.: Betamethasone valerate 0.1%; Betnovate; Synalar
Potent with anti-microbiale.g.: Aureocort; Betnovate-C; Tri-Adcortyl; Synalar C
Potent with salicylic acide.g.: Diprosalic
Very potent
Very potent with anti-microbial
e.g.: Dermovate
e.g.: Dermovate-NN

Mild and moderate preparations have few side effects; Care is required in the use of potent or very potent topical corticosteroids and absorption through the skin can cause Cushingoid symptoms and adrenal cortex suppression; absorption is greatest through raw skin, or where larger areas of skin are treated.

antiinflammatory drug 

A drug which inhibits or suppresses most inflammatory responses of an allergic, bacterial, traumatic or anaphylactic origin, as well as being immunosuppressant. They include the corticosteroids (e.g. betamethasone, dexamethasone, fluorometholone, hydrocortisone acetate, loteprednol etabonate, prednisolone, rimexolone, triamcinolone). They are sometimes combined with an antibiotic drug (e.g. betamethasone combined with neomycin or sulfacetamide, dexamethasone combined with neomycin or polymyxin B). Corticosteroids have side effects, such as enhancing the activity of herpes simplex virus, fungal overgrowth, raising intraocular pressure or cataract formation.There are other antiinflammatory drugs that are non-steroidal (NSAID) and have little toxicity. They act mainly by blocking prostaglandin synthesis. These include diclofenac sodium, flurbiprofen sodium, indomethacin, ketorolac, nepafenac and oxyphenbutazone. See immunosuppressants; steroid.

cor·ti·co·ste·roid

(kōr'ti-kō-ster'oyd)
A steroid produced by the cortex of the suprarenal gland.

corticosteroid (kôr´tikōstir´oid),

corticosteroid

any of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; also, their synthetic equivalents. Called also adrenocortical hormone and adrenocorticosteroid. All the hormones are steroids having similar chemical structures, but quite different physiological effects. Generally they are divided into glucocorticoids (cortisol, or hydrocortisone, and corticosterone), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone and desoxycorticosterone, and also corticosterone) and androgens.

corticosteroid-binding globulin
α-globulin that binds unconjugated corticosteroid and transports it in the plasma; called also transcortin.

Patient discussion about corticosteroid

Q. I received a corticosteroid injection in my left knne th A.M. Knee is all stiff & swollen. Is this normal?

A. actually you might have already had an arthritis in your knee before, then your doctor injected you with a corticosteroid into the affected joint. usually you will feel better (less pain) in your affected joint. if the symptoms don't improve then I suggest you to go see your specialist for further advise and treatment.

More discussions about corticosteroid
References in periodicals archive ?
The risk is greater in older people, especially in those older than 60, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in those with kidney, heart, or lung transplants.
Washington, Nov 26 (ANI): Widely used inhaled corticosteroid drugs increase risk of pneumonia by full third in people suffering from lung disease, according to a new study.
Wean him off the corticosteroid drugs he's been given but contact your vet if he gets any worse.
Patients using doses of corticosteroid drugs that weaken the immune system are more susceptible to infection and should avoid exposure to chickenpox and/or measles.
Treatment Analgesic drugs (painkillers), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), injections of corticosteroid drugs help relieve pain and inflammation.
Administration has asked the makers of corticosteroid drugs to warn
Creams containing corticosteroid drugs may also help the symptoms.
Following a bacterial infection, antibiotics and sometimes corticosteroid drugs.

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