cortical column

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column, cortical 

In the visual cortex, neurons with similar properties are arranged in columns (about 2 mm high) perpendicular to the surface of the cortex. The columns traverse the six cortical layers until they reach the white matter. Neurons throughout a column respond either to stimuli oriented at the same angle (orientation column) or to the inputs from the same eye (ocular dominance column, ocular dominance slab). A neighbouring column will then have neurons responding to a slightly different orientation from the one next to it and perhaps the same eye or the other eye. Neurons in layer 4 represent an exception, as they may respond to any orientation or to one eye only. Strabismus in early childhood disrupts the development of ocular dominance columns, thus preventing the development of depth perception. See visual area; blobs; hypercolumn.
Table C5 Approximate colour temperature (in K) of some light sources
clear blue sky12000-26000
overcast sky6600
sun5000-6000
electronic flashabout 5600
moonlight4000
tungsten-halogen lamp3000
tungsten filament lamp2600
candle flame2000

Table C6 Prevalence (%) and classification of colour vision defects
anomalous trichromats
deuteranomalprotanomaltritanomal
male4.6%1%0.0001%
female0.35%0.03%unknown
colour responseslight green deficiencyred deficiencyblue deficiency
dichromats
deuteranopeprotanopetritanope
male1%1.1%0.005%
female0.01%0.01%0.003%
colour responsegreen deficiency insensitive to redblue deficiency
neutral point498 nm 493 nm570 nm
monochromats
cone monochromatrod monochromat
unknown0.003%
References in periodicals archive ?
OsCare Sono measurements have been shown to correlate with bone cortical thickness, bone elasticity and bone mineral density (BMD), including BMD of the deeper cortical layers - suggesting that the device uniquely offers enhanced sensitivity to early osteoporotic changes.
In the ERC research we will use computer simulations and rodent models to understand how different types of neurons in different cortical layers might use action potentials and oscillations to implement action monitoring.
Stoner and his colleagues used gene expression to examine cellular markers in each of the cortical layers as well as genes that are associated with autism.
We discovered focal patches of disrupted development of these cortical layers in the majority of children with autism.
4] Of the 3 cortical layers, zona fasciculata and glomerulosa predominate.
The remaining 3 cases of focal cortical dysplasia were marked by an absence of layer II, occasional large pyramidal-type neurons (neuronal cytomegaly) malpositioned in cortical layer I or superficial layer III, and a malalignment of pyramidal-type neurons within cortical layers III and V.
1--This drug has inhibitory activity on cell proliferation and differentiation of cerebellar cortical layers.
The study was performed on 15 human fetuses with gestational age (GA) ranging from 14 to 40 weeks to observe the histogenesis of different cortical layers during the development of cerebellum and correlate the histogenesis of different cortical layers with diffusion tensor imaging.
With ageing, there is increased light scatter due to an increased number of cortical layers and the production of large aggregates in the lens nucleus.
When the deep layers of the cerebral cortex form numerous small gyri instead of organized cortical layers, the imaging result appears to be thickening or thinning of the cerebral cortex, which is usually associated with abnormal sulcal formation.
2003) reported that subtle TH insufficiency in the pregnant rat disrupts the migration of neurons in the fetal cortex and hippocampus, leading to the presence of neurons in aberrant locations of the adult offspring's brain and "blurring" cortical layers.
Capitalizing on recent advances in human electrophysiology, I will address these challenges by testing whether the elements of Bayesian computations are implemented by 1) distinct cortical layers (e.