cortical column

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column, cortical 

In the visual cortex, neurons with similar properties are arranged in columns (about 2 mm high) perpendicular to the surface of the cortex. The columns traverse the six cortical layers until they reach the white matter. Neurons throughout a column respond either to stimuli oriented at the same angle (orientation column) or to the inputs from the same eye (ocular dominance column, ocular dominance slab). A neighbouring column will then have neurons responding to a slightly different orientation from the one next to it and perhaps the same eye or the other eye. Neurons in layer 4 represent an exception, as they may respond to any orientation or to one eye only. Strabismus in early childhood disrupts the development of ocular dominance columns, thus preventing the development of depth perception. See visual area; blobs; hypercolumn.
Table C5 Approximate colour temperature (in K) of some light sources
clear blue sky12000-26000
overcast sky6600
sun5000-6000
electronic flashabout 5600
moonlight4000
tungsten-halogen lamp3000
tungsten filament lamp2600
candle flame2000

Table C6 Prevalence (%) and classification of colour vision defects
anomalous trichromats
deuteranomalprotanomaltritanomal
male4.6%1%0.0001%
female0.35%0.03%unknown
colour responseslight green deficiencyred deficiencyblue deficiency
dichromats
deuteranopeprotanopetritanope
male1%1.1%0.005%
female0.01%0.01%0.003%
colour responsegreen deficiency insensitive to redblue deficiency
neutral point498 nm 493 nm570 nm
monochromats
cone monochromatrod monochromat
unknown0.003%
References in periodicals archive ?
During early brain development, each cortical layer develops its own specific types of brain cells, each with specific patterns of brain connectivity that perform unique and important roles in processing information.
They examined the association of skeletal muscle mass (relative to participants' height) with bone architecture and strength, using several high-resolution imaging technologies that distinguish the outer cortical layer of bone from the inner trabecular layer.
Palmini et al (9) focal cortical dysplasia type IA is marked by isolated architectural abnormalities (dyslamination that may or may not be accompanied by ectopically placed neurons in or adjacent to cortical layer I and/or microscopic neuronal heterotopia outside layer I).
All changes indicated apoptosis in neurons of cerebellum cortical layer were rarely visible.
We examined an embryonic (E) time point associated with extensive neuralepithelial expansion and vascular investment preceding cortical layer formation.
5 is the interval where the torque decreases due to the pierce of the second cortical layer.
A distinct "module" of interconnected structures in the brain's outer, cortical layer and in other areas of the cerebrum may orchestrate mental encores of past experiences, contend Gereon R.
These regions, which lie below the brain's outer cortical layer, help to integrate knowledge about one's personal history and emotions with current and past sensations, the scientists assert.
OsCare Sono measurements have been shown to correlate with bone cortical thickness, bone elasticity and bone mineral density (BMD), including BMD of the deeper cortical layers - suggesting that the device uniquely offers enhanced sensitivity to early osteoporotic changes.
In the ERC research we will use computer simulations and rodent models to understand how different types of neurons in different cortical layers might use action potentials and oscillations to implement action monitoring.