hydrocortisone

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hydrocortisone

 [hi″dro-kor´tĭ-sōn]
the pharmaceutical term for cortisol, the principal glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal gland; the base and its salts, including h. acetate, h. butyrate, h. cypionate, h. probutate, h. sodium phosphate, h. sodium succinate, and h. valerate, are used in replacement therapy for adrenocortical insufficiency and as antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant agents in the treatment of a wide variety of disorders.

hy·dro·cor·ti·sone

(hī'drō-kōr'ti-sōn),
The principal glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex. Although synthetic products used medicinally are usually known by this name, the natural hormone is more often called cortisol. See: cortisol.

hydrocortisone

/hy·dro·cor·ti·sone/ (-kor´tĭ-sōn) the name given to natural or synthetic cortisol when it is used as a pharmaceutical. The base and its salts, including h. acetate, h. butyrate, h. cypionate, h. probutate, h. sodium phosphate, h. sodium succinate, and h. valerate are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical insufficiency and as antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant agents in the treatment of a wide variety of disorders.

hydrocortisone

(hī′drə-kôr′tĭ-sōn′, -zōn′)
n.
1. The steroid hormone cortisol.
2. A preparation of this hormone obtained from natural sources or produced synthetically and used to treat inflammatory and allergic conditions and adrenal failure.

hydrocortisone

[-kôr′tisōn]
a topical corticosteroid.
indication It is prescribed for the topical treatment of skin inflammation.
contraindications Viral and fungal diseases of the skin that occur where circulation is impaired or known hypersensitivity to steroids prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are various systemic side effects that may result from prolonged or excessive use. Local irritation of the skin may occur.

hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone acetate, hydrocortisone cyclopentylpropionate

See cortisol.

hydrocortisone

Cortisol The principal corticosteroid secreted by the adrenal cortex, which has mineralocorticoid activity, and relieves Sx of certain hormone deficiencies, and is immunosuppressive

hy·dro·cor·ti·sone

(hī'drō-kōr'ti-sōn)
A steroid hormone secreted by the cortex of the suprarenal gland and the most potent of the naturally occurring glucocorticoids in humans.
Synonym(s): cortisol.

hydrocortisone

A natural steroid hormone derived from the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland. The drug CORTISONE is converted into hydrocortisone in the liver. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory and sodium-retaining properties. It is widely used as a mild CORTICOSTEROID drug mainly for skin disorders. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Colifoam, Corlan, Dioderm, Efcortelan, Efcortesol, Hydrocortistab, Hydrocortone, Midison Lipocream. The drug is also formulated, for external use, with a variety of other drugs such as allantoin, antibiotics, azole antifungal drugs, coal tar extracts, crotamiton (anti-itch drug), hydrating agents, local anaesthetics, zinc oxide, etc. At least 40 preparations containing hydrocortisone are available on the UK drug market.

cortisol

or

hydrocortisone

an adrenocortical steroid with effects similar to CORTISONE.

Hydrocortisone

A steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands that provides resistance to stress.

glucocorticoids

the group of corticosteroid hormones (mainly cortisol syn hydrocortisone, of which cortisone is the precursor) produced by the adrenal cortex, under the control of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. Their major actions on nutrient metabolism have the net effect of promoting glucose and free fatty acid availability as fuels. Also vital for normal cellular processes as diverse, for example, as excitation-contraction coupling and the health of connective tissues. Synthetic steroids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone have similar actions and are used in the treatment of, for example, asthma and rheumatic conditions. Banned in sport due to their powerful anti-inflammatory action and effect of producing euphoria and masking pain. (Not to be confused with anabolic steroids). See also adrenal glands, hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

hydrocortisone

; cortisol potent, naturally occurring glucocorticoids that suppress inflammation (e.g. topical ointment; intra-articular or enthesis injection)

hy·dro·cor·ti·sone

(hī'drō-kōr'ti-sōn)
Principal glucocorticoid produced by the cortex of the suprarenal gland. Although synthetic products used medicinally are usually known by this name, the natural hormone is more often called cortisol (q.v.).

hydrocortisone (hī´drōkôr´tisōn),

n (cortisol), a glucocorticosteroid secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to stimulation by ACTH. Hydrocortisone is antianabolic, stim-ulates gluconeogenesis, and probably acts on some cellular system in response to a need for adaptation to change (stress).
hydrocortisone acetate/hydrocortisone sodium phosphate/hydrocortisone sodium succinat,
n brand names: Cortef, Cortifoam, Cortenema;
drug class: corticosteroid;
action: decreases inflammation by suppression of macrophage and leukocyte migration; reduces capillary permeability and inhibits lysosomal enzymes;
uses: severe inflammation, shock, adrenal insufficiency, ulcerative colitis, collagen disorders.
hydrocortisone acetate/hydrocortisone valerate,
n brand names: Acticort, Cortaid, Cort-Dome, Dermicort;
drug class: topical corticosteroid;
action: interacts with steroid cytoplasmic receptors to induce antiinflammatory effects; possesses antipruritic, antiinflammatory actions;
uses: psoriasis, eczema, contact dermatitis, pruritus.

hydrocortisone

the pharmaceutical term for cortisol, the principal glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal gland; it is used in the treatment of inflammations, allergies, pruritus, collagen diseases, adrenocortical insufficiency, and certain neoplasms. The soluble salts, sodium succinate and sodium phosphate, are used intravenously in the treatment of shock.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Cortaid FastStick combines Upjohn's popular nonprescription topical 1 percent hydrocortisone product with a unique and convenient package featuring a roll-on applicator.
Our market research shows that Cortaid FastStick will appeal highly to a large group of consumers who suffer from all sorts of itches and rashes, especially those caused by insect bites," said Thomas M.
Laughlin said other developments in the Cortaid line will also appeal to consumers:
Cortaid Maximum Strength Cream has been reformulated to include a smoother, richer texture to increase ease of spreading, while updated packaging will also feature a convenient "flip top" cap.
Regular Strength Cortaid has been repositioned as Cortaid Sensitive Skin Formula.
According to Laughlin, a national television and print advertising campaign spotlighting the new Cortaid line will begin in June.
Upjohn responded with the introduction of over-the-counter Maximum Strength Cortaid that same year.
The Cortaid brand currently holds a 14 percent share of the estimated $250 million anti-itch market.
Sales of Cortaid, the anti-itch medication; Dramamine, the motion sickness medication; and Doxidan and Surfak, the over-the- counter laxatives, also showed good growth for the year.