corn

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corn

 [korn]
1. Zea mays, a tall cereal plant that produces kernels on large ears and is the source of corn oil.
2. a circumscribed, conical, horny induration and thickening of the stratum corneum that causes severe pain by pressure on nerve endings in the corium. Corns are always caused by friction or pressure from poorly fitting shoes or hose. There are two kinds: the hard corn, usually located on the outside of the little toe or on the upper surfaces of the other toes; and the soft corn, found between the toes, usually the fourth and fifth toes, kept softened by moisture. Called also heloma.
corn oil a refined fixed oil obtained from the corn plant, Zea mays; used as a solvent and vehicle for medicinal agents and as a vehicle for injections. It has also been promoted as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids in special diets.

corn

(kōrn),
1. The foodstuff, Zea mays
2. In dogs and cats, a hard keratin growth on the footpad.
3. In horses, a bruise resulting from impact on the sole of the foot and located between the wall and the bar at the heel.
4. A hard or soft hyperkeratosis of the sole of the human foot secondary to friction and pressure.
Synonym(s): clavus (1)
[L. cornu, horn, hoof]

corn

(korn) a horny induration and thickening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, caused by friction and pressure and forming a conical mass pointing down into the dermis, producing pain and irritation.
hard corn  one usually located on the outside of the little toe or the upper surfaces of the other toes.
soft corn  one between the toes, kept softened by moisture, often leading to painful inflammation under the corn.

corn

(kôrn)
n.
A horny thickening of the skin, usually on or near a toe, resulting from pressure or friction. Also called clavus.

corn

Etymology: L, cornu, horn
a horny mass of condensed epithelial cells overlying a bony prominence. Corns result from chronic friction and pressure. The conic shape of the corn compresses the underlying dermis, making it thin and tender. Corns can become soft and macerated by perspiration. Treatment includes relief of the mechanical pressure and surgical paring or chemical peeling of the excess keratin. Also called clavus. Compare callus.
enlarge picture
Corn

corn

Podiatry A small, hard, conical hyperkeratosis caused by friction and pressure; the corn's apex may rub against subcutaneous nerve fibers causing significant pain Types Hard, soft Management Paring with a scalpel blade, appropriate footwear, padding–eg, hammer toe splint or corn pads. See Hard corn, Soft corn.

corn

(kōrn)
1. The foodstuff, Zea mays.
2. A hard or soft hyperkeratosis of the sole of the foot due to friction and pressure.
[L. cornu, horn, hoof]

corn

A protective response to local skin pressure in the form of an increased production of flattened, horny cells (cornified epithelium). The local pressure forces these hard cells further into the skin and stimulates further production.
Fig. 120 Corn. Generalized structure.click for a larger image
Fig. 120 Corn . Generalized structure.

corn

any of various cereal plants. The term ‘corn’ usually denotes the predominant cereal crop of a region, e.g. wheat in England, oats in Scotland and Ireland, and maize in North and South America.

heloma

; corn; clavus conical, focal, hyperkeratotic plug formed in response to intermittent pressure and friction, by local dermal inflammation and reduction of local epidermal desquamation, in relation to skin type and foot and/or lower-limb pathomechanical factors; plug apex is directed towards the dermoepidermal junction; dermal tissue deep to long-standing lesions undergoes fibrosis and ties skin to deeper tissues, reducing normal tissue movement and potentially exacerbating the condition; treatment involves enucleation of the keratin plug, identification and resolution of the underlying cause, and predisposing factors (see Table 1)
  • heloma durum (plural: helomata dura) hard corn, e.g. of plantar skin in association with a depressed metatarsal head, or at dorsum of an interphalangeal joint in a deformed toe

  • heloma miliare seed corn, e.g. of anhidrotic skin subject to excess friction or movement during gait

  • heloma molle soft corn, e.g. of interdigital skin, either at depth of interdigital sulcus in relation to excessive sagittal-plane movement of adjacent metatarsals, or overlying medial/lateral aspect of proximal or distal interphalangeal joints, especially in axially rotated toes ± hyperhidrosis

  • heloma neurovasculare excessively painful hard corn incorporating blood vessel and nerve elements (i.e. dermal tissue) within deepest area of the keratin plug; they bleed readily during treatment, are difficult to enucleate fully without the use of an anaesthetic, and are resistant to resolution

  • heloma vasculare hard corn incorporating blood vessel elements within deepest area of the keratin plug

  • Durlacher's corn hard corn within lateral nail sulcus of an axially rotated fifth, or occasionally fourth toe; cornified tissue may be difficult to distinguish from nail sulcus onychophosis

Table 1: Types and presentations of corn (clavus)
Corn typeName (abbreviation)Typical siteLesion characteristics
HardHeloma durum (HD)Over bony prominences and jointsDark yellow; hard central nucleus, overlain by callosity
SoftHeloma molle (HM)At base of interdigital webspace/interdigital aspect of digit, overlying an interpahalangeal jointWhite/yellow macerated hyperkeratosis; shallow, rubbery nucleus
SeedHeloma miliare (HMill)Weight-bearing skin
Areas of dry skin
Isolated or groups of tiny hyperkeratotic lesions with very hard nuclei
FibrousAreas of skin under high load
Long-standing lesions
Long-term fibrosis ties lesion to underlying tissues; difficult to resolve fully
NeurovascularHeloma neurovasculare (HNV)Areas subject to high load and torsionAs HD, plus elements of vascular/nerve tissue within the nucleus; enucleation is usually painful
Durlacher'sLateral nail sulcus of varus fifth and fourth toesLocally painful; can be overlooked as they resemble nail tissue
SubungualSubungual heloma (HSub-ung)Nail bed, below the nail plate, or encroaching under the nail platePain; local dystrophy, onycholysis and yellow discoloration of overlying nail

clavus

; corn conical area of epidermal callosity/hyperkeratosis, directed toward the dermoepidermal junction, formed in response to mechanical trauma (intermittent pressure and friction in association with compensatory or pathomechanical forces, underlying bony prominences, shoe trauma) or certain skin conditions, causing marked local pain; may show underlying tissue breakdown in association with peripheral vascular disease or distal sensory neuropathy (Table 1and Table 2)
Table 1: Types and presentations of corn (clavus)
Corn typeName (abbreviation)Typical siteLesion characteristics
HardHeloma durum (HD)Over bony prominences and jointsDark yellow; hard central nucleus, overlain by callosity
SoftHeloma molle (HM)At base of interdigital webspace/interdigital aspect of digit, overlying an interpahalangeal jointWhite/yellow macerated hyperkeratosis; shallow, rubbery nucleus
SeedHeloma miliare (HMill)Weight-bearing skin
Areas of dry skin
Isolated or groups of tiny hyperkeratotic lesions with very hard nuclei
FibrousAreas of skin under high load
Long-standing lesions
Long-term fibrosis ties lesion to underlying tissues; difficult to resolve fully
NeurovascularHeloma neurovasculare (HNV)Areas subject to high load and torsionAs HD, plus elements of vascular/nerve tissue within the nucleus; enucleation is usually painful
Durlacher'sLateral nail sulcus of varus fifth and fourth toesLocally painful; can be overlooked as they resemble nail tissue
SubungualSubungual heloma (HSub-ung)Nail bed, below the nail plate, or encroaching under the nail platePain; local dystrophy, onycholysis and yellow discoloration of overlying nail
Table 2: Treatment regimes for hyperkeratoses
Treatment regimeComments
Physical removalCareful scalpel debridement of callosity and corn enucleation, to return the skin to normal texture for the site; the prime approach to callous reduction
Topical medicamentsPyrogallol plaster 20-40%, applied for 3 days to neurovascular corns
Wheatgerm and pyrogallol (WP) ointment, applied to deep painful corns, after enucleation, for a maximum of three applications
Salicylic acid 12% in collodion, to assist softening and subsequent scalpel removal of heavy plantar callosity
Dichloroacetic acid, applied after scalpel debridement of heavy callosity, forming a rubbery coagulum, itself debrided away 14-21 days later
Potassium hydroxide 5% solution applied to callosity and left in situ for 7 days to macerate
Urea cream 10% applied liberally each night to hyperkeratosis and seed corns associated with atrophic dry skin, and the feet wrapped in cling film (Seran) until morning
Astringents for hyperhidrosis
Antifungals for athlete's foot
Emollients for anhidrosis
40% Silver nitrate or 60% ferric chloride solution to reduce hypertrophied dermal papillae
Aluminium acetate (Burow's) solution or kaolin powder mixed to a paste in water as a compress to areas of inflammation
Thermal techniquesCryosurgery
Electrosurgery and hyfrecation
Clinical padding See Table 3
OrthosesTemporary (chairside) or permanent simple insoles or casted orthoses
AdviceOn general foot care, suitable shoe styles and hosiery, home treatments for associated conditions (such as fungal infections, hyperhidrosis, anhidrosis, emollients, as appropriate), return period and treatment frequency

Note: The treatment of hyperkeratotic lesions must reflect the patient's overall condition (general health, drug therapy, occupation, activities, age, genetic make-up, skin type), the mechanical deformation of the skin during movement, against resistance, local friction, pressure and shear stresses, and the rate of desquamation from the stratum corneum.

Table 3: Examples of clinical pads
Pad typeExamplesDescription
Digital padsPlantar bar/long propSCF pad formed to infill the plantar aspect of the shanks of lesser toes, in order to prevent/reduce overcontraction of one or more lesser toes
Dorsal barSCF pad formed to infill the dorsal aspects of one or more hammered or retracted lesser toes, to reduce trauma to the skin overlying the prominent interphalangeal joints
Dorsoplantar splintSCF pad made as a combination of the plantar and dorsal bars, to correct digital deformity/reduce trauma to the apices and dorsa of lesser toes
Interdigital wedgeSCF or foam (plain, cavitied or holed) pad formed to match the dimensions of the interdigital space to reduce reformation of an interdigital heloma molle
Dorsal proximal/distal/apical/interdigital crescentA crescent-shaped pad applied proximal/distal to the dorsal/apical/interdigital area of a hyperkeratotic lesion on a digit, to reduce local pressure and friction
Dorsal horseshoeA horseshoe-shaped pad, where the 'arms' of the horseshoe cover the dorsal aspects of toes adjacent to the digit affected by a corn, and the U acts in the same manner as a crescent pad to protect the lesion
Plantar metatarsal padsPlantar coverA pad that covers the plantar skin of the forefoot, from the webbing to a line approximately 1cm distal to the bases of the metatarsals
U'd plantar coverA plantar cover into which a U has been cut to deflect pressure away from a plantar lesion. The U may be infilled with cushioning material
Winged plantar coverA plantar cover into which semicircular cutouts have been made, to deflect pressure from the 1 and/or 5 MTPJs
Plantar metatarsal padA pad applied to the 2/3/4 metatarsals, the distal limit of which applies pressure to the 2/3/4 metatarsal heads so that the 2/3/4 MTPJs are extended and the 2/3/4 toes realigned into a more functional position; the pad will also reduce compression between adjacent metatarsal heads
Plantar barA pad similar to a plantar cover, the distal limit of which had been shaped to accommodate up to 5 U'd areas
Shaft pad/long shaft padA pad applied to an individual metatarsal to allow sagittal-plane realignment
OthersD filler
Valgus pad
A pad that is shaped to infill the plantar aspect of the medial longitudinal arch to reduce excessive pronation or ease the pain of foot strain
Hallux valgus ovalAn oval pad, with or without a central cavity or hole, that is applied to the medial aspect of the 1 MTPJ to reduce local shear stresses in cases of HAV
Heel padA pad shaped to the plantar aspect of the heel, to cushion or reduce pressure to a plantar bursitis or heel spur
Posterior heel padA pad designed to deflect pressure from the posterior lateral area of the heel, in cases with Haglund's deformity
Doughnut pad
Ring pad
Oval pad
A circular pad with a central cavity or hole applied to the plantar aspect of the heel to protect the point of insertion of the plantar fascia
Cobra padA pad that combines a medial heel wedge, a valgus filler and a medial forefoot pad, to reduce excess foot pronation
Dumbbell padA pad that combines the action of a shaft pad to dorsiflex an individual metatarsal head, and an interdigital wedge, to reduce friction and pressure at the depth of the interdigital sulcus
Achilles tendon padA pad applied to the posterior aspect of the heel, to reduce pressure and friction at the insertion of the tendo Achilles

SCF, semicompressed felt; MTPJ, metatarsophalangeal joint; HAV, hallux abductovalgus.

corn

1. a circumscribed hyperkeratosis of the footpad of dogs, sensitive to pressure.
2. a hematoma between the sensitive laminae and horn of the sole, usually between the frog and bar, in the hoof of the horse. It is painful on pressure and a cause of lameness.
3. in USA and elsewhere Zea mays, a member of the plant family Poaceae, grown as a cereal crop bearing seeds and used as a grain feed, green chop and ensilage. Used also for human consumption as meal or flour. The grain is deficient in most essential amino acids, especially lysine and tryptophan (high-lysine varieties are available), and in calcium and cannot be used as a complete ration in pigs. It may be fed whole, cracked, flaked, roasted, as dried or as high moisture corn (contains 25% moisture). Overeating of the grain by ruminants causes carbohydrate engorgement, and of moldy standing corn causes moldy corn poisoning. Called also maize.
4. in UK triticum aestivum is also called corn.
5. the name corn is also used with other cereals such as rye corn, barley corn.

corn cob
see cob (2). Ground into a meal it is used as a roughage of very low nutritive value in ruminant diets. Of some value as a diluent in high grain diets.
corn cockle
agrostemmagithago.
corn oil
rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid.
wild corn
see veratrumcalifornicum.

Patient discussion about corn

Q. What corn based products can I eat. I have diverticular disease. I love corn tortillas, corn bread, corn dogs.

A. The dietary recommendations for people with diverticular disease of the colon are usually to add fibers-rich foods (fruits, vegetables etc.). As far as I know corn isn't especially rich in dietary fibers, so I don't know about any recommended corn-based foods, although I don't know about any recommendations to refrain from eating corn-based foods.

If you have any questions regarding this subject, you may consult your doctor. You may also read more here:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/dietaryfiber.html

More discussions about corn
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VEGETARIAN: corn on the cob, coleslaw, mashed potatoes, macaroni salad, cornbread, biscuits
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Now 22 months old, Skylar was a picture of health Sunday, eating corn on the cob and soaking in the event's entertainment.
However, due to constant tending of the veggies, we only covered the grill for a few minutes at a time, mostly for the not so-tender vegetables like carrots or corn on the cob, to cook them through.
We grow corn for the stalks, not the corn on the cob.
Food will be provided by two sit-down restaurants - one serving roast beef, the other Mexican cuisine - and booths offering beverages, watermelon, corn on the cob and barbecued meats.
The Valley Fair got under way with swimming pigs, roasted corn on the cob and plenty of music - ranging from Dixieland Jazz to Beatlemania.
LeBalch steams clams, oysters, shrimp, a lobster tail and crab in seaweed over an open flame, places the cooked seafood on a seaweed bed and serves it with corn on the cob and corn bread.