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Alsius Corporation's (Irvine, CA) intravascular balloon-catheter system has been approved in the United States for therapeutic human core cooling and rewarming during or following cardiac or neurologic surgery and following cerebral infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage and was thus employed for core rewarming after traumatic injury (10).
Continuous veno-venous rewarming with a 40[degrees]C hemodiafiltration (CVVH) machine may produce core rewarming rates of up to 2[degrees]C/h in cases of primary (nontrauma) hypothermia but often requires a specially trained nurse or technician for monitoring (12-14).
Intravascular heat exchange with a balloon catheter provides rapid active core rewarming, even in patients with unavoidable ongoing heat loss.