confound

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confound

(kŏn-fownd′) [L. confundere, to confuse, to pour together]
1. To introduce bias into a research study.
2. To confuse, bewilder, or mystify. confounding, n.
References in periodicals archive ?
Figure 1c shows A (0) and A (1) representing exposure at times 0 and 1, and C (0) and C (1) represent time-varying confounding variables measured temporally before times t = 0 and t = 1, respectively.
The patient-centered communication scores (based on the audiotape analysis) were not significantly related to any of the health outcomes after adjusting for the clustering of patients within practices and after controlling for the 2 confounding variables.
Finally, the correlation must be free of confounding variables.
The caution to the healthcare researcher and others is to realize that such confounding variables may be present when data sets are combined, requiring further reflection by the researcher.
The Penn study has examined data from more than three times as many geographic areas as earlier research and has controlled for numerous potential confounding variables previously unaddressed or only partially addressed.
The literature describing the association between stress-related conditions, including PTSD, with preterm birth (PTB), has been inconsistent and limited with regard to power, assessment of the burden of symptoms, and confounding variables including psychiatric comorbidity and psychotropic medications that also have been linked with PTB.
Once controlling for all these confounding variables and running the appropriate diagnostic tests, gender was added to determine if its contribution was statistically significant.
Second, key changes in immunity will be reviewed, keeping a perspective of the impact of confounding variables in addition to age but focusing on age-related changes in the interaction of the innate and acquired components of immunity.
Demographic factors associated with stillbirth, after adjusting for confounding variables, were unbooked status, low maternal education, vaginal delivery and maternal co-morbidity.
Results: The program modality was not a significant predictor of overall satisfaction with a program once we controlled for the confounding variables, including age, program area, and presence of visual impairments (-.
They failed to consistently measure history of violence or to control for relevant confounding variables such as psychopathy, childhood trauma, and substance abuse.
no-go) and five ERPs (N2, P3, error-related negativity, error positivity, and correct response positivity) after controlling for confounding variables.