confounding

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confounding

 [kon-foun´ding]
interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables; a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions can not be separated.

con·found·ing

(kon-fownd'ing),
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

[konfoun′ding]
1 interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables.
2 a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions cannot be separated.

con·found·ing

(kŏn-fown'ding)
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.

confounding factor
one which is distributed non-randomly with respect to the independent (exposure) or dependent (outcome) variable which is the subject of an enquiry.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although subjects with intermittent insomnia appeared to be more likely to die than no-insomnia subjects, further adjustments for various confounders such as body mass index, smoking status, and regular physical activity, as well as other confounding factors, eliminated this excess risk due to intermittent insomnia.
Statistical analysis was performed to measure any difference between the two groups and also to account for the confounding factors listed above.
The Dunedin IQ-fluoride study is missing just about all the confounding factors that the authors have criticised in the studies reviewed by the Harvard team.
The analyses of data from 13 studies including 254,950 adults with pneumonia found a significant 38% decreased likelihood of dying in patients who were on statins compared with non-statin users, before adjusting for confounding factors, Dr.
The analyses were adjusted for birth parental-related confounding factors (mental health problems, substance misuse and maternal education) and age at placement in substitute care.
Our zip code level quarterly data allow us to control for many potential confounding factors through the inclusion of fixed effects for each zip code as well as for each combination of county, quarter, and year.
Respondents with confirmed awareness of the Touch campaign (about 15%) experienced significant improvements in indicators related to condom use, even after controlling for confounding factors.
Also, no conclusions could be made regarding drug effect due to confounding factors in the studies.
Numerous measures of folate status and comprehensive evaluations of confounding factors led the researchers to determine that there was no relationship between incidence of orofacial cleft and supplemental or dietary folic acid.
The task force notes just how challenging it is to study the possible long-term psychological sequelae of abortion and calls for better-designed, rigorously conducted future research on the topic to "help disentangle confounding factors and establish relative risks of abortion compared to its alternatives.
The researchers found that the users of cod liver oil were significantly less likely to have depressive symptoms than non-users after adjusting for multiple possible confounding factors.
To assess the relationships among cannabis use and anxiety and depression, the researchers reviewed data on 3,239 Australian young people from birth to age 21 and measured confounding factors at birth, age 14, and age 21 (J.