confounding

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confounding

 [kon-foun´ding]
interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables; a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions can not be separated.

con·found·ing

(kon-fownd'ing),
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

[konfoun′ding]
1 interference by a third variable so as to distort the association being studied between two other variables, because of a strong relationship with both of the other variables.
2 a relationship between two causal factors such that their individual contributions cannot be separated.

con·found·ing

(kŏn-fown'ding)
1. A situation in which the effects of two or more processes are not separated; the distortion of the apparent effect of an exposure on risk, brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors observed in a set of data, such that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution of any single causal factor to the observed effects.

confounding

when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.

confounding factor
one which is distributed non-randomly with respect to the independent (exposure) or dependent (outcome) variable which is the subject of an enquiry.
References in periodicals archive ?
sure that both Interplay and Confounding Factor have an excellent future
Thus, it is difficult to establish reference ranges because confounding factors impose restrictions on the interpretation of individual results.
These odds reductions were not adjusted for confounding factors such as age and smoking.
Although subjects with intermittent insomnia appeared to be more likely to die than no-insomnia subjects, further adjustments for various confounders such as body mass index, smoking status, and regular physical activity, as well as other confounding factors, eliminated this excess risk due to intermittent insomnia.
These associations remained significant after adjustment for various potential confounding factors.
They found that resistance exercise and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises were both independently associated with a reduced risk for diabetes, even after adjusting for aerobic activity and many other potential confounding factors.
35) for the highest quartile relative to the lowest after adjusting for total vegetables and fruits intakes and other potential confounding factors.
Potential confounding factors were ascertained from parent interviews and medical charts.
Confounding factors could have created bias in this registry analysis that makes interpretation of improved survival impossible.
This means that they can, at best, describe associations and can be difficult to control for confounding factors.
The main strengths of the study are its prospective design, large number of participants, wide range of exposure, and consideration of numerous confounding factors.
The analyses were adjusted for birth parental-related confounding factors (mental health problems, substance misuse and maternal education) and age at placement in substitute care.