reinforcement

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Related to Conditioned reinforcer: partial reinforcement, Continuous Reinforcement

reinforcement

 [re″in-fors´ment]
the increasing of force or strength. In the psychological theory of behaviorism, presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses. This is central in operant conditioning.



Positive reinforcement consists of a stimulus that is added to the environment immediately after the desired response has been exhibited. It serves to strengthen the response, that is, to increase the likelihood of its occurring again. Examples of such reinforcement are food, money, a special privilege, or some other reward that is satisfying to the subject.

Negative reinforcement consists of a stimulus that is withdrawn (subtracted) from the environment immediately after the response, so that the withdrawal serves to strengthen the response.
reinforcement of reflex strengthening of a reflex response by the patient's performance of some unrelated action during elicitation of the reflex.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'ment),
1. An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes a fist tightly or pulls against flexed fingers or contracts some other set of muscles.
See also: Jendrassik maneuver.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.
2. In dentistry, a structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function; for example, bars in plastic denture base.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.
3. In conditioning, the totality of the process in which the conditioned stimulus is followed by presentation of the unconditioned stimulus, which itself elicits the response to be conditioned.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.

reinforcement

/re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whether positive to desirable events, or negative to undesirable events which are reinforced in their removal.

reinforcement

(rē′ĭn-fôrs′mənt)
n.
1. Something that reinforces.
2. Psychology
a. The occurrence or experimental introduction of an unconditioned stimulus along with a conditioned stimulus.
b. The strengthening of a conditioned response by such means.
c. An event, circumstance, or condition that increases the likelihood that a given response will recur in a situation like that in which the reinforcing condition originally occurred.

reinforcement

[rē′infôrs′mənt]
Etymology: L, re + Fr, enforcir, to strengthen
(in psychology) a process in which a response is strengthened by the fear of punishment or the anticipation of reward.

reinforcement

Psychology Any activity, either a reward-positive reinforcement, or punishment-negative reinforcement, intended to strengthen or extinguish a response or behavior, making its occurrence more or less probable, intense, frequent; reinforcement is a process central to operant conditioning. See Contingency reinforcement.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'mĕnt)
1. An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes the fist tightly or pulls against the flexed fingers or contracts some other set of muscles.
2. dentistry A structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function (e.g., bars in plastic denture base).
3. conditioning The totality of the process in which the conditioned stimulus is followed by presentation of the unconditioned stimulus that itself elicits the response to be conditioned.
See also: reinforcer

reinforcement

A term used in learning theory and in behaviour therapy that refers to the strengthening of a tendency to respond to particular stimuli in particular ways. In classical conditioning, the occurrence or deliberate introduction of an unconditioned stimulus along with a conditioned stimulus; in operant conditioning, a reinforcer is a stimulus, such as a reward, that strengthens a desired response.

reinforcement

in psychological terms: (1) in operant conditioning, a stimulus that, when presented following a response, leads to an increase in the frequency of emission of the response in the future. Also known as a reinforcer and more colloquially as a reward; (2) the process of strengthening the frequency of a response through presenting a reinforcement. reinforce vt . negative reinforcement the strengthening of the frequency of a response by removing an aversive stimulus. See also conditioning, punishment.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'mĕnt)
In dentistry, structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function; e.g., bars in plastic denture base.

reinforcement,

n the increasing of force or strength.

reinforcement

the use of a stimulus to modify an existing form of response. The stimulus may be a reward or a punishment and the reinforcement may correspondingly be positive or negative.
References in periodicals archive ?
On this topic there is an important variable which has received remarkable attention within the study of discriminations learning: the use of conditioned reinforcers (Williams, 1994, for a theoretical review).
The results showed that the protocol used to condition 2D pictures on pages as conditioned reinforcers for observing responses was effective in significantly accelerating acquisition of mastery of match-to-sample instruction for all three participants.
A series of studies have successfully established conditioned reinforcers as a function of observation, including initially nonpreferred stimuli, such as plastic discs (Greer & Singer-Dudek, 2008), metal washers (Zrinzo & Greer, 2013), adult vocal approvals or praise (Greer, Singer-Dudek, Longano, & Zrinzo, 2008), books (Singer-Dudek, Oblak, & Greer, 2011), and small pieces of string (Singer-Dudek, Greer, & Schmelzkopf, 2008; Singer-Dudek & Oblak, 2013).
1981; Maurice, Green, & Luce, 1996) is a "pairing" of stimuli that one wants to establish as conditioned reinforcers with unconditioned or primary reinforcers.
Although it is clear that a conditioned stimulus that reliably predicts reinforcement should be preferred over a stimulus that predicts reinforcement only 50 % of the time (Stagner and Zentall 2010), it appears that the stimulus that was never associated with reinforcement and that occurred on 80 % of the trials when that alternative was chosen did not show compensating conditioned inhibition that should have countered the effect of the conditioned reinforcer.
All of these results implied that, unlike pigeons, whose choices seemed dependent on only the durations of the conditioned reinforcers that preceded food, the rats' choices were influenced by the total time between reinforcers, regardless of whether or not the conditioned reinforcers were present.
Having the unopened bottle of wine functions as a CEO-T that makes corkscrews (and wine glasses) valuable as conditioned reinforcers and evokes behavior that leads to obtaining them (e.
Both the contextual choice model (Grace, 1994; Grace & Savastano, 2000) and the hyperbolic decay model (Mazur, 1995) predict that although context may influence choice, the value of a conditioned reinforcer depends solely on its own relation to reinforcement, independent of context.
Extinction of the drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior within the operant chain in the presence of respective discriminative stimuli and conditioned reinforcer (under different establishing operations, i.
This leaves the peer as the possible conditioned reinforcer in the pairing process, if the source of the effect is indeed attributable to a kind of vicarious Pavlovian pairing or stimulus contingency relation.
This effect suggests exteroceptive stimuli presented during delay interval may function as conditioned reinforcers, blocking stimuli, or both.
A conditioned reinforcer maintained by temporal association with the termination of shock.